Frozen little zombie Arctic The 24,000-year-old permafrost has recently revived and was cloned in a Russian laboratory.
These tough creatures are the bdelloidea, or rotifers, named for their small ring-shaped hairs that loop around their mouths. Rotifers are multicellular microscopic animals that live in freshwater environments and have been inhabited for about 50 million years.
During that time, the rotifer learned one or two survival tricks.
Researchers have previously discovered that modern rotifers freeze at minus 4 degrees Fahrenheit (-20 degrees Celsius) and resurrect after up to 10 years. Today, scientists have revived rotifers frozen in ancient Siberian permafrost in the late Pleistocene (2.6 million to about 11,700 years ago). Once thawed, these ancient rotifers begin asexual reproduction through parthenogenesis, clone It was a gene replication.
Relation: Photo: Ice age mammoth found in Idaho
Permafrost (ground that has been frozen hard for more than two years) can store snapshots of life (and death) thousands of years ago. For example, the carcass of a small bird found in Siberian permafrost in 2020 was 46,000 years old. [had] He died just a few days ago, “said Live Science. Previously reportedFrozen and mummified Cave bearAlso discovered in Siberia in 2020, dating back about 39,000 years, it still had a thick black nose and much of its fur.
It’s impressive that it stays alive after thousands of years in the ice. But some species of plants and animals trapped in ancient permafrost have done something even more amazing. Resurrected from the frozen state.
In 2012, scientists explained how 30,000-year-old plants were regenerated from immature fruit tissue frozen in Siberian permafrost. Live Science Reported that year. Two years later, Researchers regenerated Antarctic moss Was frozen Antarctica 1500 years. Small insects called nematodes have also been found and revived in ancient permafrost in two places in Siberia. One was a rock about 32,000 years ago and the other was a rock about 42,000 years ago, Live Science report In 2018.
And now, the frozen animal “zombies” in the permafrost have been resuscitated from a state of metabolic arrest known as cryptobiosis.
Rotifers have evolved to take advantage of cryptobiosis. Most of the rotifers live in a water-covered environment that freezes and dries, he said, a researcher at the Institute for Soil Science and Biochemistry in Psino, Russia, who has revived.
“They stop metabolism and accumulate certain compounds, such as chaperone proteins, that help them recover from cryptobiosis when their condition improves,” Malabin told Live Science in an email. There is also a repair mechanism. DNA Malabin explained that it was to protect cells from damaging and harmful molecules called reactive oxygen species.
For a new study, scientists drilled to a depth of 11.5 feet (3.5 meters) from the surface of the Alazeya River in Siberia and collected samples of permafrost. When the sample was thawed, the researchers found a rotifer. Adineta A genus of cryptobiosis states.
According to the study, scientists first isolated and analyzed samples of permafrost to make sure they were not contaminated by modern microbes. To revive the frozen sleepers, “Put a mass of permafrost in a Petri dish and put it in a Petri dish. [a] Using the right medium, wait for living organisms to recover from dormancy, start moving, and multiply, “says Malabin.
Of course, when the thawed survivors began to clone themselves, scientists could not determine which individuals were ancient and which were newborns, because the rotifers are genetically identical. .. Scientists collected data from clones of rotifers 24,000 years ago, rather than from ice age survivors, because rotifers usually live for only about two weeks, Malabin said.
“Organisms isolated alive from permafrost could be the best model for cryogenic biological research,” Malabin said. He said these mechanisms can be tested in cryopreservation experiments with human cells, tissues and organs.
However, humans cannot always quickly reproduce the frozen sleep and recovery of rotifers, Malabin added.
“The more complex an organism, the harder it is to keep it alive and frozen,” he said. “For mammals, this is not possible at this time.”
The findings were published online in the journal on June 7. Current biology..
Initially published in Live Science.
24,000-year-old “zombies” revived and cloned from Arctic permafrost
Source link 24,000-year-old “zombies” revived and cloned from Arctic permafrost