4 ways extreme heat hurts the economy | News – Tucson, Arizona

Tucson, Arizona 2021-08-09 09:45:00 –

Summer 2021 Probably one of the hottest on record As dozens of cities in the west Experience the highest temperature ever..The extreme heat felt in many parts of the United States Hundreds of dead, Wildfire sparks When Deterioration of drought situation In more than a dozen states.

How does this scorching heat affect the wider economy?

As Economist who studied NS Impact of weather and climate change, I have considered a great deal of research linking heat and economic outcomes. Here are four ways extreme heat can hurt the economy – and the good news.

1. Growth is hit

Studies show that extreme heat can directly undermine economic growth.

For example, in a 2018 survey, the US state economy Tends to grow at a slow pace During the relatively hot summer. The data show that for every 1 degree Fahrenheit, when the state’s average summer temperature was higher than normal, the annual growth rate dropped by 0.15-0.25 percentage points.

Workers in industries exposed to the weather, such as construction Work in less time When it’s hot. However, high summer temperatures slow down the growth of many industries that tend to involve indoor work, such as retail, services, and finance. When it gets hot, workers are less productive.

2. Decrease in yield

Agriculture is clearly exposed to the weather. After all, the crop grows outdoors.

If the maximum temperature is about 85-90 F (29-32 C), it will help the crop grow, Yield drops sharply When the thermostat rises further. Crops that can be hit hard by extreme heat include corn, soybeans, and cotton. These reductions in yields can be costly for US agriculture.

For example, a recent survey I conducted showed an additional 2 degrees Celsius of global warming. Eliminate profits From an average acre of farmland in the eastern United States

A prominent example of this is Collapse of Russian wheat harvest In response to the 2010 heat wave of countries that have raised wheat prices around the world.

3. Energy consumption surges

Of course, when it’s hot Increased energy consumption that’s why People and businesses run their air conditioners And other cooling devices are used at once.

NS In the 2011 survey Adding a day with temperatures above 90 degrees Fahrenheit will increase your household’s annual energy use by 0.4%. More recent research Shows that energy usage increases most in places where it tends to be the hottest, probably because more households are using air conditioning.

This increase in electricity usage on hot days stresses the power grid when people are most dependent. California When Texas During the recent heat wave. Power outages can be very costly to the economy, as food and other commodities inventories can be ruined and many companies need to turn generators on or off.For example, a power outage in California in 2019 It costs an estimated $ 10 billion..

4. Education and income suffer

The long-term effects of hotter weather are related to how it affects children’s learning abilities and thus their future income.

Studies have shown that heat during the school year lowers test scores. Math scores are getting lower and lower When the temperature rises above 70 F (21 C). Reading scores are more tolerant and hot, and this study claims to be consistent with how different parts of the brain respond to heat.

In one study, students in schools lacking air conditioning 1% less learning Every time the average temperature of the school year rises by 1 degree Fahrenheit. We also found that minority students were particularly affected by the hottest grades, as school air conditioning was particularly likely to be inadequate.

Lost learning results Decline in lifetime earnings When Impair future economic growth..

In fact, the impact of extreme heat on development begins before we are born. According to the survey The adult exposed to extreme heat as a foetation Earn less during their lifetime.. If the average temperature exceeds 90 degrees Fahrenheit (32 degrees Fahrenheit) for one more day, profits will decline after 30 years. 0.1%..

Air conditioning helps – to some extent

Air conditioning can offset some of these effects.

For example, research shows that air conditioners are working. Few people die, Student learning is uncompromising When Extreme heat outside during pregnancy does not hurt the foetation..

However, not everyone has access to air conditioning, especially in normally cool areas such as Oregon, Washington, and Canada, where unusually extreme temperatures have occurred this year. And many people I can not afford to Own or operate them. According to 2017 survey data About half of the Pacific Northwest homes

There was a shortage of air conditioners.When About 42% of US classrooms There is no air conditioner.

While the heat wave is shown Induce more households Installing an air conditioner is not a panacea. By 2100, air conditioner usage may increase Residential energy consumption increased by 83% worldwide.. If that energy comes from fossil fuels, it can amplify the heat waves that caused the increase in demand in the first place.

And in the southern United States, where air conditioners are ubiquitous, summers are hotter than usual. Make the greatest sacrifice About the state’s economic growth.

In other words, as the temperature rises, the economy will continue to suffer.

This article will be republished from conversation Under a Creative Commons license.read Original work..

Arizona Mirror Is part of the States Newsroom, a network of news stations supported by grants and 501c (3) a coalition of donors as a public charity. Arizona Mirror maintains editing independence. If you have any questions, please contact the editor Jim Small. info@azmirror.com..Follow Arizona Mirror Facebook When twitter..

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