Researchers have explored the various properties and uses of nanoparticles targeting SARS-CoV-2 and how they can be used to develop new therapies and diagnostics for SARS-CoV-2. confirm.
Nanoparticles smaller than 100 nm are widely used in many applications. Their small size increases their surface-to-volume ratio, which has been used to their advantage. Nanoparticles are made from a variety of materials, including inorganic, metallic and organic materials.
The use of nanoparticles in pharmaceutical applications has many advantages. These materials can improve drug solubility, controlled drug release, and targeting of specific cells. In addition, they exhibit efficient adsorption of many types of biomolecules and other chemicals and can be used for both treatment and diagnosis.In a recently published review Current Opinions in Colloid and Surface Science, A team of researchers reviewed current nanoparticle technology and how to use nanoparticles to fight COVID-19.
Interaction with biomolecules
Nanoparticles can be functionalized, porous or hollow, allowing biomolecules to attach to the nanoparticles. Several inorganic nanoparticles have been studied for drug delivery of viral infections.
Gold nanoparticles are attractive for vaccines because they can act to boost the immune response. Silver nanoparticles show antiviral activity and can be used to treat COVID-19 when used in combination with bronchodilators. Quantum dots are another type of nanoparticles that can be used for detection and diagnosis due to their excellent detection properties.
Organic nanoparticles can also be used in therapeutic applications. Cyclodextrin nanoparticles have a hydrophilic outer core and a lipophilic center. Lipid nanoparticles are used in pharmaceutical compositions due to their high biocompatibility and low toxicity.
Nanoparticles can be made in a size similar to Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). They can interact with viral proteins and interfere with viral replication.
COVID-19 nanoparticle-based therapies
SARS-CoV-2 is an RNA virus that is transmitted primarily by air droplets from respiratory exhaled breath, coughing, or sneezing of an infected person. The viral peplomer and its receptor-binding domain (RBD) attach to host receptors such as human angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) during infection.
Peplomers and RBD are important therapeutic targets. Tests have shown that iron oxide nanoparticles can form a stable complex with peplomers, so these materials used today in the treatment of anemia can be reused in the treatment of COVID-19. Carbon nanotubes with excellent electrical and thermal properties can be used to develop functional materials that can be heated locally to prevent virus replication.
mRNA vaccines use mRNA encapsulated in organic nanoparticles, usually lipid nanoparticles, and two such vaccines are currently approved.Another type RNA vaccine Uses self-amplifying RNA (saRNA). This causes the mRNA to be much higher in concentration than the viral genome, producing the virus. antigen It’s much more effective.Studies have encapsulated saRNAs in lipid nanoparticles, where they are at high levels. Neutralizing antibody With the mouse.
Nanoparticles can also be used to provide treatment in a variety of forms. The drug is encapsulated in liposomes and can be eaten. Liposomes can also protect sensitive substances such as mRNA. Nanoparticle systems can also be designed for inhalation. This is especially useful in the treatment of COVID-19.
Drugs used to treat other illnesses may also be reused to combat COVID-19. Some studies have focused on natural compounds that can be used to treat COVID-19. Chitosan nanoparticles previously used for hepatitis C virus may be used for COVID-19. These materials may prevent the invasion of viruses by blocking the positive charge on the surface of the host cell.
Nanoparticle technology can also be used to improve disease testing and diagnosis. One study found that integrating the detection method into a nanogold chip could increase the sensitivity and reliability of the sensor.
Lantanide is another class of material with unique properties. Lantanide-based nanoparticles have been studied as immunochromatographic biosensors for detecting IgG antibodies in human serum. It can be used to monitor a patient’s immune response and disease progression.
Therefore, there are some potential uses for nanoparticles in the fight against COVID-19. Global collaboration is needed to find treatments and antivirals. Experimental studies combined with computational studies that can optimize the interaction of nanoparticles with drugs or viruses will help develop better therapies faster.
Application of nanoparticles in the fight against COVID-19
Source link Application of nanoparticles in the fight against COVID-19