In 2016, the LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory) team surprised and delighted the world. First discovery of gravitational wavesIt arises from the collision of two black holes billions of years ago.
And there was a strange little surprise, along with the intensity of excitement (and some Nobel Prizes). NS Black Hole It had a very unique mass, which opened up fascinating possibilities. It is possible that a black hole that I heard LIGO collided with was forged when the universe was less than a second.
Related: Space black hole (image)
A guide to making a black hole
We know how black holes are made in the modern universe.you StarThe bigger the better. It should work with at least eight times the mass of the sun. Then wait for the star to burn all available hydrogen supplies. This only takes tens of millions of years. It’s not a big problem.
And at the end of its life, the star destroys itself with a cataclysm of energy, Supernova explosion.. Nothing can resist the inward pull of gravity, as the fire of the explosion can reach a state where the core density is strong enough. As a result, most of the stars explode outwards, while some collapse inward, flipping over and folding in the direction of oblivion. It is a black hole.
The bigger the star, the bigger the black hole and the more interesting the LIGO results. Those colliding black holes had masses 30 and 35 times their mass. Sun, Each. To make black holes that big, you need to start with a really scary star monster somewhere north of 100 times the mass of the Sun, or build them from the merger of many small black holes.
At the time, both scenarios seemed unlikely. Large stars do not exist in space (at least today), and mergers are not common enough to make it happen.
Therefore, perhaps these black holes had different origins.
Big bang black hole machine
The early universe was a crazy place, to say the least. Since then, unprecedented temperature and pressure. The phase change that shook the entire universe. A transformation that rewrites the law of nature itself.
At that time, under the right conditions, the old gas patch could have naturally shrunk to form black holes of any size, from just a few kilograms to thousands of times the mass of the Sun.
All theoretical physicists working on these so-called primordial black hole problems have at least one hypothetical mechanism to generate them. Inflation theory To the colliding universe.
In a sense, it’s easy Primordial black hole To explain the results of early LIGO, find a theory of creating black holes in the right size range and quantity, wait billions of years, and then a merger event will occur.
But if you want to fill a black hole from space big Bang, They’re going to do more than make LIGO sing.
Hunting in the dark
What does the universe overflowing with primordial black holes look like? This is a multi-million dollar question that needs to be answered when testing this hypothesis.
For one thing, black holes may randomly collide with others, attracting others by gravity, and generally causing mayhem. A kilogram-mass black hole that collides with the Earth can cause an earthquake. A black hole of silence can pull a binary pair of stars apart or destroy an entire dwarf galaxy.Black hole plunging into Neutron star It can cause a terrible explosion.Even fictitious Planet Nine may be a black hole It’s not bigger than a tennis ball.
And when it comes to potential detectability, as a bonus, black holes aren’t completely black. Black holes can glow more faintly than ever before through a quantum mechanical process called. Hawking radiation.. Large black holes rarely glow. The mass of the sun is radiated around one photon each year, and it takes 10 ^ 60 years to lose all its mass. However, small black holes can disappear in a much shorter time, releasing bursts of energy in the process.
The black hole explosion may have destroyed the early universe and changed the elemental abundance and appearance. Cosmic microwave background radiation.. Or they may be responsible for some of the gamma-ray bursts we see in our sky.
Unfortunately, despite all our attempts, the existence of primordial black holes cannot be harmonized with the universe we see. For all conceivable means of observation, primordial black holes cause so much turmoil that we will notice.
In other words, it’s hard to explain the mass of the coalescing black holes that LIGO witnessed, but if you want to make the universe with those black holes primitive, you can detect it in other ways.
Paul M. Satter Astrophysicist at SUNY Stony Brook and Flatiron Institute Ask the astronaut When Space radio, And “author of”How to die in space.. He contributed this article to Space.com Expert Voice: Editorial and Insight..
Listen to the episode “Did the Big Bang Make a Black Hole?” And see more details. Ask A Spaceman Podcast (available on iTunes and the Web (http://www.askaspaceman.com)). Robert K asked the question that led to this work. Thanks to Peter N. and Raul P.! Use #AskASpaceman on Twitter or follow Paul @ PaulMattSutter and facebook.com/PaulMattSutter to ask your own questions.
Are there any black holes left from the Big Bang?
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