Recent reviews of International Journal of Biological Polymers It provides a new overview of “birosome” -based nanovaccine production, its properties, and its application to viral diseases, emphasizing its importance in the discovery of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines.
Virosomes are lipid nanomaterials and biomimetics. It acts as an immunogen, an epitope display nanocarrier, or a delivery nanoplatform.
Virosomes mimic the enveloped viral fusion pathway, eliciting a strong humoral and cell-mediated immune response. “
It is an FDA-approved nanocarrier for pharmaceutical approaches with promising bioinspiration and biomimetics potency against viral infections. Virosomes mimic the original form of the virus by incorporating different types of antigenic epitopes. Therefore, like a vaccine, it can elicit a strong immune response in the host.
A schematic diagram of virus particles is shown. Virosomes impart adjuvant properties and act as carriers for the delivery of several bioactive compounds, including lipophilic and hydrophilic drugs, peptides, and polymers.
Vaccines protect us from malignant tumors, widespread infectious diseases, and even drug dependence, but conventional vaccines have a weak cell-mediated immune response, safety alerts for viral infections in vaccinated individuals, and booster immunity. Includes the need, the emergence of immunogenicity.
To address these limitations, nanomedicines have helped and contributed significantly to vaccine production. Nanocarriers used in vaccine formulations can be composed of lipids, proteins, metals, polymers, and other organic elements. Virosomes are nanocarriers, spherical monolayer vesicles (60-200 nm) structurally similar to the nucleocapsid-depleted phospholipid enveloped virus.
Virosome-based vaccines elicit a potent humoral and cell-mediated immune response that is important in combating life-threatening viral diseases. Although RNA viruses mutate rapidly, virosome can be a versatile carrier that can generate multi-antipotic epitopes for all strains of RNA virus.
The efficacy and mechanism of virosome-based vaccine action includes compounds, particle size distribution and homogeneity, charge, morphology, and antigen And / or an adjuvant in the carrier structure, and finally the route of administration. “
Since virosomes cannot replicate and only integrate into the host genome, this nanovaccine provides a new horizon for vaccine development, eliminating concerns about medical complications and next-generation products.
In the bilosome delivery system, the epitope of the antigen is adsorbed via hydrophobic domains or lipid linkers on its surface and inside and further integrated into the phospholipid bilayer. Viral glycoprotein epitopes are located on the surface of the viralsome (peviprotm) or on the secret membrane vesicle (pevitertm).
The reviewers also discussed possible ways to carry the drug. Hydrophilic drugs are present in hollow vesicles, and hydrophobic drugs mix with bilayer phospholipids. Surface modification of virosome is performed using hydrophilic polymers such as polyethylene glycol (PEG) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), which prolongs the circulation time.
Choosing targeting moieties on the bilosome structure (ligands, antibodies, peptides, etc.) gives you the opportunity to reach intracellular levels of cellular components of the tumor cells, respiratory system, and immune system.
To date, several vaccine adjuvants based on virosome preparations have been commercialized for a wide range of life-threatening infections such as influenza (Inflexal® V) and hepatitis A (Epaxal®). “
In the review, they provided their views on biodegradable, biocompatible, non-toxic biomolecules, vilosomes, with a high safety profile in vaccine development.
The immunogenic pathway of virosome-based vaccines. Virosomes that bind to pathogen recognition receptors on APC cells triggered the release of IgG, IgA, and IgM antibodies. Birosomes entered cells by the endocytic pathway. Viral peptide derived from bilosome degradation in endosome low pH binding to MHC-? And MHC-I? The molecule stimulated T helper cells and CTL cells. CTL removed the viral infection and produced cell-mediated immunity.
Other benefits of using virosome include the use of a variety of routes of administration and can be combined with other adjuvants. Reviewers have listed vilosome-based formulations that have been marketed or are in the preclinical and clinical stages. Reviewers have reported that various types of virosome-based vaccines have been approved in more than 45 countries and that more than 10 million patients have been vaccinated so far. It can also be applied to infants and the elderly.
One of the main drawbacks of using virosome is the rapid disintegration of bilosome preparations. Stability optimization allows the development of thermostable bilosome-based vaccines to be administered via the mucosal pathway.
Reviewers suggest that this is a bioinspiring compound that could revolutionize vaccination patterns in developing countries. They also provided a classification of nanovaccines – high molecular weight nanovaccines, self-assembling peptides and protein vaccines, VLP or viral structural proteins, inorganic nanovaccines, liposome vaccines – widely used for viral infections in clinics.
Therefore, virosome is an auspicious medium for developing active nanovaccines. It’s easy to prepare and has a variety of shipping routes. Today, many virus products have already been approved by authorities in various countries.
Researchers recommend that special efforts be made to improve virosome-based viral vaccines, such as Transvac 2, a new vilosome vaccine designed against the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Transvac2 is in Phase 1 clinical trials. This is an innovative compound that is expected to help with recent viral pandemics.
In this review, the author addressed important questions about the nature, preparation, and popularity of viral somas and emphasized their importance as a result of COVID-19.
Can virosome-based nanovaccines be a promising new approach to prevent viral diseases?
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