Cephalopods are members of a class of marine animals, including: octopus, Squid, squid, nautilus.Over 800 species (and) in this group New species are still being discovered), according to CephBase It is listed in the Encyclopedia of Life, a database that is part of the Smithsonian Institution’s National Museum of Natural History. Many cephalopods have tentacles, the ability to change colors, can be sprayed with ink, and can show impressive feats of intelligence, but all cephalopods have all these characteristics. I don’t have it.
The word cephalopod means “cephalopod” in Greek and refers to the fact that these two body parts are integrated into these animals. New World Encyclopedia.. Although groups come in a variety of shapes, the basic cephalopod body plan includes a minimum of eight arms, a siphon, a mantle, and two eyes. Nautilus has a shell, and other cephalopods have a soft body covered with hard skin. Despite having the most complex neurology of all invertebrates, most cephalopods can only live for months or 1-2 years, depending on the species, but some nautilus Can live for over 20 years. All species of cephalopods live in saltwater environments, and some can tolerate brackish or slightly salty water, but not freshwater.
Octopus and squid are the most well-known members of the cephalopod animal. They all evolved from a common hardshell ancestor (similar to a nautilus). Some of their evolution can be more difficult to track than other mollusks. This is because they are poorly fossilized mollusks.
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Where do cephalopods live?
With the exception of the nautilus (all six species live only in the Indo-Pacific between Asia and Australia), cephalopods live throughout the Earth’s oceans. According to the Chicago Field MuseumIncludes shallow coastal ecosystems, open oceans near sea level, darkness in the Central Sea, and depths of 26,000 feet (7,900 meters) below water.
Squid is usually Spend winter in the deep sea, Then move to shallow, often coastal waters for breeding in spring and summer. In general, octopuses tend to spend time on the ocean floor, are lonely, and only mate together. Squids are more sociable and tend to spend time in groups that protect them from predators. However, as with most animal groups, there are exceptions.
“There are lonely squids in the deep sea,” said Janet Voight, deputy curator of the Women’s Committee for Invertebrate Zoology at the Field Museum in Chicago. “In shallow water, they form groups to protect themselves from visual predators, and the deep sea means they don’t have to,” she said.
Similarly, most octopus species are lonely, but at least one species, Larger Pacific striped octopus (Not officially explained) Form a mating pair and live in a group, And researchers recently discovered a large group of common Sydney octopuses (Octopus tetricus) Living together, Live science previously reported..
What do cephalopods eat?
Octopuses eat everything from starfish to clams, snails, small fish and even other octopuses. “Octopus and squid live by killing and eating other animals, but because they have their permeable skin and are really good proteins, to almost everything else that has teeth. It’s been preyed on, “Voight said.
Squids and squids mainly eat fish, crustaceans and nautilus are mainly scavengers, and they also hunt fish, crabs and shrimp, but find waste of other animal prey on the ocean floor.
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Cephalopods are the center of health for the entire marine ecosystem. Because they are both predators and prey, they are “very important in connecting different levels of the food web,” said a marine biologist.Monarch of the Sea: An amazing 500 million year history of cephalopods“(Experiment, 2020).
How do cephalopods work?
All cephalopods move by filling their body cavities with water and ejecting them through a siphon. This creates a narrow jet of water that propels the animal in the opposite direction. Some cephalopods are faster or easier to move than other cephalopods, depending on their muscles and body structure. For example, the long and narrow body of a squid allows it to move faster than many octopus species. Octopuses, on the other hand, have muscular tentacles that allow them to not only spray around the water column, but also walk and crawl on the ocean floor.
Nautilus with up to 90 tentacles is protected by a hard shell, so movement is less important to avoid predators. However, squids and octopuses have no shells. That is, we need other ways to escape predators. “In the case of squids, there is camouflage, but most swim very fast,” Staf said. “And in the case of octopuses, it’s usually a combination of camouflage and hiding in these very small spaces that other predators can’t fit in.”
The shell evolved into a squid internal support rod, while the hard shells of its ancestors completely disappeared with the octopus, giving it amazing flexibility. It “keeps their bodies long and straight, and their muscles compete,” Staaf said. “It makes them very hydrodynamic — so very fast swimmers.”
Some squids can even fly, according to a 2020 survey published in the journal Bio-inspiration and biomimetics.. If the squid is directed at the surface of the water, a jet of water can push the squid into the air. “They can keep the jets moving and moving forward while they’re actually in the air,” Starf said. And the small fins on both sides of the body act like wings and carry them in the air over short distances. It’s unclear why squids sometimes fly, but some experts suspect it’s because they escape predators. Another theory, according to Staaf, is that jumping in the air may actually be more efficient for traveling long distances.
The squid species known as glass squid, which belongs to the family Hawes squid, has another migration advantage. These squids are waste ammonia (generated by digesting meat and Special body cavity) Ammonia is lighter than salt water, so to give them free lift. “Nevertheless [ammonia is] Being a toxic chemical, they can somehow isolate it in the body, “Voit said.
Octopus, squid, squid You can evolve your striking camouflage abilities to change skin tones and iridescent colors, flash quickly, and create patterns that mimic your surroundings. They do this for both hiding from predators and hiding from prey. They also use their ability to change color as a means of communication, Live science previously reported.. “The bigfin reef squid has been the most studied of the communication that occurs between members of species adjacent to a language,” says Starf.
Changing the color is not the only way to hide it. According to a report released in 2011, glass squids are transparent, obscuring animals and protecting them from predators, which can be a huge advantage in the ocean.journal Current biology..
In addition to evasion techniques, many types of squids, octopuses, and squids can use self-produced inks to cloud water and confuse or annoy predators.
How do cephalopods breed?
After a female octopus mates with a male and lays a fertilized egg (on a burrow, seabed, or rock wall), she stops eating and stays with the egg to aerate and protect the egg until it hatches. .. “Then the octopus’s mother dies by the time the eggs hatch,” she said. 2007, deep-sea octopus Graneledone boreopacifica The scientist she was surprised at Stayed with her eggs for over 4 years, Longer and more gloomy than any known animal.
It has long been thought that all squids and squids spawn and then die, but there is at least one type of squid that does not. In 2005, scientists were of a particular type Deep sea squid (((Gonnatus Onyx) Carry a large amount of eggs in her arms. The squid foamed air through the eggs to provide sufficient oxygen and kept the eggs safe from predators until they hatched. “Before 2005, no one knew that squids did this,” Staf said, adding that she shows how much she can learn about cephalopods.
When hatched, most cephalopods are small but grow rapidly and double in size within a few weeks, Voight said. “They are afraid of almost everything, so they will be able to kill and eat what they were eating by killing their siblings a week ago,” she said.
Cephalopods: Facts about octopus, squid, nautilus, etc.
Source link Cephalopods: Facts about octopus, squid, nautilus, etc.