Chagas disease, also known as trypanosomiasis in the United States, Protozoan Parasite Cruise Trypanosoma, according to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The disease is named after Carlos Ribeiro Justiniano Chagas, a Brazilian doctor and researcher who diagnosed the first known case of the disease in 1909. World Health Organization (Who).
It is estimated that an estimated 6-7 million people are infected worldwide Cruise Trypanosoma, WHO says, but the CDC website states that there could be as many as 8 million people. Chagas disease can be cured if treatment is started immediately after infection, but if left untreated, the infection can become chronic and cause serious and life-threatening medical problems.
Cruise Trypanosoma Although it can be transmitted in several ways, people are usually exposed to parasites through contact with the feces and urine of the triatoma rubrofa.Triatoma rubrofa), A family of blood-sucking insects that live mainly in Latin America and the southern United States, CDC Status. That said, bugs are found throughout the Americas and are documented in a total of 29 US states. Texas A & M University..
Triatoma rubrofas are called “triatoma rubrofas” because they often bite people’s faces, and they hide during the day and become animals at night. Human blood, According to WHO.Bugs can be picked up Cruise Trypanosoma From the blood of infected people and animals, and once infected, the intestines of the worm act as an incubator of parasites until they pass through feces and urine.
After eating human blood, the triatoma rubrofa defecates, leaves a poop, Cruise Trypanosoma On the skin of their victims. If a bitten person (who is likely to be asleep when bitten) rubs or scratches the skin, it can push the parasite into the mouth. eye, Bites or other open skin lesions.
Humans can also be infected Cruise Trypanosoma According to WHO, in the following ways:
- Consumption of contaminated food or beverage Cruise Trypanosoma For example, through contact with feces and urine of infected triatoma rubrofa and marsupials.
- Transfusion of blood or blood products from an infected donor
- Passage from infected mother to newborn during pregnancy or childbirth
- Several organ transplants using organs from infected donors
- Accidental laboratory exposure
“Breastfeeding is generally considered safe even if the mother has Chagas disease,” said the CDC. “But if the mother cracks her milk nipples or blood, she needs to pump and discard the milk until the nipples heal and the bleeding disappears.” NS Cruise Trypanosoma The CDC adds that parasites cannot be transmitted from person to person, such as colds and flu, or through accidental contact with infected people or animals.
Chagas disease has an acute phase that lasts for weeks or months, and a chronic phase that can last for decades or throughout someone’s life, the CDC said.
Large amounts during the acute phase of Chagas disease Cruise Trypanosoma Parasites circulate in the bloodstream, but the symptoms tend to be “absent or mild.” Early signs of infection in many people are skin lesions or purplish swelling of the lid of one eye. According to the WHO, a person may also experience persistent fever, headache, enlarged lymph glands, pale appearance, muscle pain, dyspnea, abdominal or chest pain or swelling.
Specifically, people with acute infections can develop swelling near where the triatoma rubrofa first bites. CDCThis swelling is sometimes called “chagoma”, but the apparent swelling of the infected eye is Cruise Trypanosoma It is called Romana’s sign.In rare cases, infants may become severely inflamed heart Muscle or brain In the acute phase, it wraps around the brain.People with weakened immunity AIDS infection Also chemical treatment For example, treatment faces an increased risk of such serious symptoms during an acute Chagas disease infection.
In the chronic phase of infection, Cruise Trypanosoma According to WHO, parasites are found primarily in the heart and muscles of the digestive system, with little or no parasites in the blood. At this stage, many remain asymptomatic and do not develop the complications of Chagas disease. However, according to the CDC, an estimated 20% to 30% of people may have the following symptoms:
- Sudden death or abnormal cardiac rhythm that can cause progression heart failure Caused by the destruction of the heart muscle and its nervous system
- Dilated heart that does not pump blood well
- Dilated esophagus or colonMakes it difficult to eat and pass stool
Keep in mind that it can take up to 20 years or more after the initial infection before these heart and digestive problems occur.
Immunosuppression by illness or medicine is also possible Cruise Trypanosoma To “reactivate” in the chronic phase. That is, the parasite appears in the bloodstream as it did in the early acute phase.
Treatment and prevention
Chagas disease can usually be diagnosed by a doctor’s physical examination, blood test, or other biometric screening. The CDC recommends that if you are diagnosed with Chagas disease, you should have a cardiac follow-up (electrocardiogram) even if you feel good.
In the acute phase, the anthelmintic drugs benznidazole and nifurtimox can cure Chagas disease. This also applies to children born with infectious diseases. “Effectiveness of both [drugs] However, the longer the infection, the less likely it is, and the older you are, the more often side effects occur, “says WHO.
Both drugs have side effects such as headache, dizziness, loss of appetite, and weight loss. skin rash. Side effects may be more serious in the elderly.
These treatments are also recommended for people who are infected with “reactivated” Chagas disease. For people in the early stages of the chronic phase; for women of childbearing age to prevent infection in utero. (Please note that neither anthelmintic drug should be taken in the meantime pregnancy. )
For people who are already in the chronic phase of infection, treatment helps prevent or control the progression of the disease, but the benefits of treatment should be weighed against the potential risks of taking the drug for a long period of time. .. Infected individuals may also receive a variety of treatments to control the various symptoms of Chagas disease.
There is no vaccine available for Chagas disease, but there are steps that can be taken to reduce the risk of developing it. Cruise Trypanosoma. Triatoma rubrofas often hide in gaps in walls and roofs, so you can get rid of insects by spraying long-lasting insecticides on your home or surrounding area. WHO can also reduce the risk of exposure by maintaining the cleanliness of the home and cooking food properly and hygienically, similar to using a bed net.
Screening for donors of Chagas disease blood, organs, tissues, and cells can prevent infections from blood transfusions and transplants. Screening women of childbearing age can reduce intrauterine infections, and screening children of infected mothers can detect infections early. Travelers in affected areas should follow food and drink precautions and avoid eating salads, uncooked vegetables, unpeeled fruits, and unsterilized fruit juices, the CDC said. Stated.
This article is for informational purposes only and is not intended to provide medical advice.
Originally published in Live Science.
Chagas disease: causes, symptoms, treatment and prevention
Source link Chagas disease: causes, symptoms, treatment and prevention