Tardigrades, often referred to as tardigrades and moss piglets, are microscopic aquatic animals with a plump, segmented body and flat head. They have eight legs, each tipped with four to eight claws or fingers, somewhat similar to the “Alice in Wonderland” hooker-sucking caterpillar. Tardigrades are cute enough to be disarmament, but they are rarely destroyed and can survive in space.
The tardigrade was discovered in 1773 by the German zoologist Johann August Ephraim Geese. He calls tardigrades “small tardigrades”. Three years later, Italian biologist Lazzaro Spallanzani named the group “tardigrades” or “slow steppers” because of their toddlers. Carleton University Science Education Resource Center (SERC). Currently, about 1,300 species of tardigrades are known in the Tardigrade Gate (classification category). Integrated classification information system (ITIS), a resource for species names and classifications created in partnership with the United States Federal Agency.
How big is a tardigrade?
Tardigrades range in length from 0.002 to 0.05 inches (0.05 to 1.2 millimeters), but typically do not exceed 0.04 inches (1 mm) in length. World Tardigrade Database..
Where do tardigrades live?
As the name implies, tardigrades live almost everywhere there is liquid water, inhabiting the sea, freshwater lakes and rivers, and the water membranes that cover terrestrial moss and lichens. According to the University of Michigan, it can withstand a variety of environments, from 19,600 feet (6,000 meters) above sea level to over 15,000 feet (4,700 m) below sea level in the Himalayas. Animal Diversity Web (ADW).
Not all tardigrades live in extreme environments, but tardigrades are known to survive extreme conditions that kill most other life forms by transforming into dehydrated spheres called tongues. Researchers have found that tardigrades in the tun state can withstand temperatures from minus 328 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 200 degrees Celsius) to over 300 degrees Fahrenheit (148.9 degrees Celsius). Smithsonian magazine report. They can also withstand radiation, boiling liquids, and exposure to up to 6 times the pressure of the deepest parts of the ocean. Science Education Resource Center At Carleton College, Minnesota.2008 study published in the journal Current biology Some species of tardigrade survive a 10-day trip to low earth orbit when dehydrated, Earth Unscathed by the sun Ultraviolet rays Radiation and the vacuum of the universe.
Recently, dry tardigrades Shot from a high speed gunIt travels about 3,000 feet per second (900 meters per second) and withstands the overwhelming impact of pressure of about 1.14 gigapascals.Their survival suggested the possibility of thousands of tardigrades carried on Israeli lunar missions. Beresheet May have survived after the lander Crashed on the moon, April 11, 2019.
What do tardigrades eat?
Most tardigrades inhale fluid from plant, algae, and fungal cells and put a needle-shaped stylet in their mouth to puncture the cell wall and lift the fluid inside. However, according to the University of Illinois Wesrian, some species can consume whole organisms such as rotifers, nematodes, and even other tardigrades. Species distribution project (SDP).
How do tardigrades breed?
Tardigrade breeding can be sexual or asexual, depending on the species. In the case of the egg layer, the female lays up to 30 eggs at a time, and the eggs can be fertilized in the female’s body. In the cuticle of her hut after the man ejaculates sperm there; or while adhering to the sand or underlay, according to ADW. Other bear beetle species are self-fertilized hermaphrodites that reproduce through parthenogenesis (the process by which embryos develop without in vitro fertilization).
According to ADW, embryos usually develop fully within 14 days of fertilization, but development can last up to 90 days, depending on environmental conditions such as dryness and temperature. Young tardigrades have no larval stage and resemble adult miniatures when hatched, but usually have fewer claws and spines than fully grown tardigrades. Young people grow in several stages by molting the “skin” of the external cuticle, and each molting can take 5-10 days to complete.
What is the reason why tardigrades are not so destroyed?
Tardigrades have an unusual strategy for surviving harsh conditions. It becomes a nearly deadly condition called cryptobiosis, which drains more than 95% of the water from the body, retracts the head and feet, and becomes dehydrated. By the 1970s, scientists determined that various forms of tardigrade cryptobiosis could be caused by four environmental triggers: desiccation, freezing, lack of oxygen, and excess salt. Science report..
During cryptobiosis, tardigrade metabolic activity drops to only 0.01% of normal levels. Its cells are protected from damage by tardigrade-specific water-soluble proteins (known as tardigrade disordered proteins, or TDPs). When tardigrades drain the body, TDP molecules form tough glass-like cocoons around the cells.According to a 2017 study published in the journal, while the tardigrade is tsundere, this keeps the cell material safe and allows it to be revived in water when the conditions are more friendly. Molecular cell..
Classification of tardigrades
Kingdom: Animal kingdom
Lower bound: Protostome
Upper gate: Ecdysozoa
The tardigrade tsundere can be revived even after decades. In 2016, scientists revived two tsundere and tardigrade eggs that had been in cryptobiosis for over 30 years. Live science previously reported.. It may be possible to resuscitate from a longer tun state. In 1948, Italian researchers allegedly revived tongue from dry moss over 120 years ago. BBC However, according to the BBC, other researchers have not revived tardigrades from the old tardigrades since then.
Also, in some tardigrades, fluorescence can protect against radiation by converting UV light into harmless blue light. Live science previously reported..
Are tardigrades endangered?
Tardigrades have not been evaluated by the International Union for Conservation of Nature, a global organization that monitors the conservation of animals and natural habitats. And they are not on the list of other endangered species. In fact, tardigrades have survived all five mass extinctions on Earth since the group evolved about 500 million years ago. University of Wisconsin-Madison, And tardigrades can survive After humanity has left for a long time, Discovered by researchers.
In 2017, scientists at Harvard and Oxford University investigated the probability of a particular astronomical event — an asteroid hitting Earth, an adjacent supernova explosion, Gamma rays Bursts can occur over the next billions of years, to name a few. Next, they evaluated the potential of those events to wipe out the toughest species on Earth.Although such disasters are likely to eradicate humans, researchers have found that most tardigrades can withstand most cosmic cataclysms, they reported in their study published in the journal. Science report..
“Surprisingly, we found that collisions with nearby supernovae and large asteroids were devastating to people, but tardigrades could be unaffected,” said the study’s co-author and Oxford researcher. David Sloan is Said in a statement..
Facts about Tardigrades | Live Science
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