Stephen Hawking was one of the greatest theoretical physicists of our time. His illustrious 50-year career in science comes from his illustrious 50-year career in science, best known for his appearance in popular media and his lifelong fight against debilitating illnesses, and his true influence on his descendants.Starts with his PhD The dogma In 1966, his groundbreaking work continued non-stop until his finals. paper It was completed in 2018, a few days before he died at the age of 76.
Hawking worked at the intellectual cutting edge of physics, and his theory often seemed strangely distant when he formulated them. Still, they are slowly being accepted into the mainstream of science, and new supporting evidence is constantly emerging.From his astonishing point of view Black Hole In his account of the humble beginnings of the universe, there are some of his theories that have been substantiated here … and some are still in the air.
Big bang wins
Hawking got off to a breakthrough with his dissertation, written at a critical time when there was fierce debate between two rival cosmologies. big Bang And steady state. Both theories admit that the universe is expanding, but the first expands from a microscopic and ultra-dense state in the past finite time, and the second theory expands the universe forever. Is assumed. Matter It is constantly created to maintain a constant density.In him The dogmaHawking has shown that steady-state theory is mathematically self-contradictory. He instead claimed that the universe began as an infinitely small, infinitely dense point called the singularity. Today, Hawking’s explanation is almost universally accepted by scientists.
Black holes are real
Best of all, Hawking’s name is associated with Black Hole — Another kind of singularity. It is formed when the star completely collapses under itself. gravity..These mathematical curiosities arose from EinsteinGeneral theory Theory of relativity, And when Hawking turned his attention to them in the early 1970s, they had been debated for decades.
According to the article Nature, His genius strokes Einstein’s equations Quantum mechanicsTransforms what was previously a theoretical abstraction into something that actually appears to exist in the universe. The final proof that Hawking was right came in 2019 when the event horizon telescope took a direct image of a supermassive black hole lurking in the center of the giant galaxy Messiah 87.
The name of the black hole is gravity Are so strong that photons or particles of light should not be able to escape from them. However, in his early work on this subject, Hawking argued that the truth was more subtle than this black-and-white photograph.
By applying quantum theory — specifically, the idea of a pair of “virtual photons” You can create it voluntarily from nothing — He noticed that some of these photons appear to be emanating from a black hole. This theory, now called Hawking radiation, has recently been introduced. Technion-Israel Institute of Technology,Israel. Instead of the actual black hole, researchers used an acoustic analog, a “sound wave black hole” that does not allow sound waves to escape. They detected the equivalent of Hawking radiation, exactly according to physicist predictions.
Black hole area theorem
In classical physics, entropy, or system disorder that can only increase over time, never diminishes. Together with Jacob Bekenstein, Hawking proposed that the entropy of a black hole be measured by the surface area of the horizon of the surrounding event.
Recent discoveries of gravitational waves emitted by merging pairs of black holes indicate that Hawking was correct again.As hawking Told the BBC After the first such event in 2016, “The observed properties of the system are in line with the predictions I made for black holes in 1970 … the final black hole area is the first. Greater than the total area of black holes in the .. ”More Recent observations Provided further confirmation of Hawking’s “Area Theorem”.
As a result, the world is gradually catching up with Stephen Hawking’s amazing predictions. However, there are still quite a few that have not yet been proven in either way:
The presence of Hawking radiation poses a serious problem for theorists. Removing information from space seems to be the only process in physics.
The basic properties of the materials used to make black holes appear to be lost forever. The radiation that comes out tells us nothing about them. This is the so-called information paradox that scientists have been trying to solve for decades. Hawking’s own view of the mystery released in 2016 is Information is not really lost.. It is stored in a cloud of zero-energy particles surrounding a black hole, which he called “soft hair.” However, Hawking’s hairy black hole theorem is just one of several hypotheses put forward, and to this day no one knows the true answer.
Primordial black hole
Black holes are created from the gravitational collapse of existing matter such as stars. However, some may have been spontaneously created in the very early universe shortly after the Big Bang.
Hawking was the first person to dig deeper into the theory behind such a primordial black hole. It turns out that it can have virtually any mass, from very light to very heavy. However, Hawking radiation actually “evaporates” a very small mass and leaves nothing behind. One of the interesting possibilities Hawking considered is that primordial black holes may constitute a mysterious black hole. Dark matter Astronomers believe that it permeates the universe. But, Live Science previously reported, Current observational evidence shows that this is unlikely. In any case, there are currently no observation tools for detecting primordial black holes or determining whether they make up dark matter.
One of the topics Hawking pondered towards the end of his life was the Multiverse. The idea is that our universe, which started with the Big Bang, is just one of the myriad bubble universes that coexist.
Hawking wasn’t happy with the suggestion by some scientists that any ridiculous situation he could imagine must be happening somewhere in that endless group.So his very Last treatise In 2018, Hawking called in his own words to “try to tame the Multiverse.” He proposed a new mathematical framework that makes the Multiverse finite rather than infinite without completely eliminating it. But, like any other guess about the parallel universe, I’m not sure if his idea is correct. And it seems unlikely that scientists will be able to test his ideas right away.
Chronological protection forecast
It may sound surprising, but the laws of physics, as we understand today, do not prohibit it. time travel.. The solution to Einstein’s general theory of relativity is:Closed timelike curve, ”This allows you to effectively return to your past. Hawking was plagued by this because the backward movement of time caused a logical paradox, which he felt was simply impossible.
So he proposed to prevent the occurrence of a closed timelike curve by a currently unknown law of physics. This is the so-called “chronological protection conjecture”. However, “guess” is simply a scientific statement of “guess”, and it is not really known whether time travel is possible.
One of the most frequently asked questions by cosmologists is “what happened before the Big Bang?”Hawking My view The question was that it was meaningless. For all intentions and purposes, the time itself, and the universe and everything in it, began with the Big Bang.
“For me, this means there’s no chance of an author,” he said. Live Science previously reported, “Because there is no time for creators to exist.” That is the opinion that many people disagree with, but Hawking has expressed many times throughout his life. It almost certainly falls into the “never resolved in any way” category.
In his later years, Hawking made a series of dark prophecies about the future of mankind, but he may or may not have been completely serious. Reported by the BBC
These extend to the elusive Higgs boson, or even the proposal of “God’s particle”. May cause vacuum bubbles It will devour the universe hostilely Alien invasion And Artificial intelligence (AI) Acquisition. Stephen Hawking was right about so many things, but we would have to hope he was wrong about these things.
Originally published in Live Science.
Four weird Stephen Hawking theories that turned out to be correct (and six we don’t know)
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