Two teenagers developed severe psychological symptoms such as delusions, delusions, and suicidal ideation during a mild COVID-19 infection. Scientists now believe they have identified potential triggers. The rogue antibody may have accidentally attacked the brain of a teenager instead of the coronavirus.
Researchers were tested at the Benioff Children’s Hospital at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) after catching COVID-19 in 2020, according to a new report on the case published Monday (October 25). Two young people in their teens discovered these fraudulent antibodies.journal JAMA Neurology.. NS antibody Appeared in the patient’s cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). This is a clear liquid that flows in and around the hollow space of. brain And the spinal cord.
However, while such antibodies may attack brain tissue, it is premature to say that these antibodies directly caused annoying symptoms in teens, researchers said in a new study. wrote. This is because many of the identified antibodies appear to target structures inside the cell rather than outside. Co-author Dr. Samuel Pleasure, a physician scientist and professor of neurology at the University of California, San Francisco, told Live Science by email.
“Therefore, COVID autoantibodies” (meaning antibodies that attack the body, not the virus) “show an uncontrolled autoimmune response that the antibody does not necessarily cause the symptoms directly and may cause the symptoms. I think it is. ” He said. He added that further research is needed to test this hypothesis and see if other undiscovered autoantibodies target cell surface structures and cause direct damage.
The results of this study show that COVID-19 can cause the development of autoantibodies that target the brain, a pediatric neurologist in Atlanta Pediatric Medicine and an assistant professor at Emory University School of Medicine. , New research. She also suggested that in some cases, treatments that “calm down” the immune system could help resolve the psychological symptoms of COVID-19, she told Live Science via email.
Both teens in this study were given intravenous immunoglobulin, a treatment used to essentially reset the immune response of autoimmunity and inflammatory diseases, after which the teen’s psychological symptoms were partially Targeted or completely relieved. However, patients may have “improved themselves without treatment,” and the study is too small to rule out, Gomborei said.
I found a possible mechanism, but many questions remain
other virus, like that Herpes simplex virusMay attack brain cells, cause harmful inflammation, and accelerate the development of antibodies that cause neurological symptoms, Gomborei said. “Therefore, it is reasonable to suspect that COVID-19 may also be relevant.”
Prior to the teenage study, the study authors published evidence of neuroautoantibodies in adult COVID-19 patients.According to a report published in the journal on May 18th Cell Reports Medicine, These adult patients experienced seizures, loss of smell, and difficult-to-treat headaches, most of which were hospitalized for respiratory symptoms of COVID-19.
But “for these teens, the patient’s respiratory symptoms were negligible,” Pleasure said. This suggests that such symptoms may occur during or after cases of mild respiratory COVID-19.
During the five months of 2020, 18 children and teens were admitted to the UCSF Benioff Children’s Hospital, where COVID-19 was confirmed. Patients were tested positive for the virus by either PCR or rapid antigen testing. From this group of pediatric patients, the authors of the study recruited three teenagers who underwent a neurological evaluation and were the focus of a new case study.
One patient had a history of unspecified anxiety and depression, and after catching COVID-19, they developed delusions and signs of delusion. The second patient had a history of unspecified anxiety and motor tics and experienced rapid mood changes, aggression, and suicidal ideation after infection. They also experienced a “foggy brain”, poor concentration, and difficulty completing their homework.A third patient with an unknown psychotic history had repetitive behaviors, eating disorders, agitation, and insomnia A few days when they did not show these behaviors before.
As part of the neurological examination, each teenager underwent a spinal puncture and a CSF sample was taken from the waist. All three patients had elevated antibody levels in CSF, but only CSF in patients 1 and 2 had antibodies to SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. The authors of the study state that in these teens, the virus itself may have invaded the brain and spinal cord. “If there is a direct virus invasion, I think it’s transient, but there’s still a lot of uncertainty here,” Pleasure said.
These same patients also had neuroautoantibodies to CSF. In mice, the team found that these antibodies were latched in several areas of the brain, including the brain stem. The cerebellum at the back of the brain. Cortex; The olfactory bulb is involved in the sense of smell.
The team then used laboratory experiments to identify the targets that the neural antibodies grabbed. Researchers have flagged several potential targets, especially a protein called transcription factor 4 (TCF4). Mutations in the TCF4 gene can cause a rare neuropathy called Pitt-Hopkins syndrome, and some studies suggest that dysfunctional TCF4 may be involved. schizophrenia, According to the journal 2021 report Translational psychiatry..
These findings suggest that autoantibodies may contribute to a runaway immune response that causes psychiatric symptoms in some COVID-19 patients, but small studies have shown that the antibodies themselves directly cause the disease. I can’t prove it to cause. Other immune-related factors other than antibodies may promote the appearance of these symptoms.
“These autoantibodies may have the most clinical significance as markers of immunomodulatory dysfunction, but no evidence was found that they actually cause the patient’s symptoms. Should be done in this area. There is certainly more work to be done, “said co-lead author Dr. Christopher. Bartley, an assistant psychiatric instructor at the Weil Neuroscience Institute at the University of California, San Francisco, Said in a statement..
In future studies, Gomborei said, “it would be helpful to examine the CSF of children with COVID-19 who did not show neuropsychiatric symptoms,” he said as a point of comparison. “However, it is difficult to obtain CSF from these patients because CSF must be obtained by spinal puncture, and spinal puncture is usually not performed unless the patient has neurological symptoms.”
That said, the team is currently working with several groups that are studying. Long COVIDWe are collecting CSF samples from patients with and without neuropsychiatric symptoms, Pleasure said. “In adults, it is not uncommon for patients to undergo spinal puncture for research purposes after receiving appropriate informed consent and tissue reviews.” We will use this study to identify the autoimmune mechanism behind these annoying neuropsychiatric symptoms and work to understand how autoantibodies fit the image.
Originally published in Live Science.
“Illegal” antibodies found in the brains of teenagers with delusions and delusions after COVID-19
Source link “Illegal” antibodies found in the brains of teenagers with delusions and delusions after COVID-19