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Image: 10 incredible volcanoes in our solar system

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(Image credit: NASA / JPL-Caltech / ASI / USGS / University of Arizona)

Doom Mons, Titan

Named after Mount Doom in The Lord of the Rings, Doom Mons is the highest point in the Southern Hemisphere of the Moon. Giant.. It is believed to have grown due to the steady exudation of molten water and methane ice from ice volcanoes, or crevices in the crust. Mohini fructus, a bright leaf-shaped stream at least 124 miles (200 km) long, appears to emerge from the mountains and extend northeast.

Like everywhere on the surface of Titan, Doommons has a variety of lunar orange atmospheres, including wind, rain, snow particles, hydrocarbon smog and fumes composed of liquid methane and ethane. The elements are constantly being attacked. This bombardment means that the structure of the volcano is constantly changing, but wind erosion may also play a role in limiting the height of its peaks.

Titan orbit close to Saturn, And the tidal forces it produces can cause the internal heat that powers DoomMons. Some scientists have expressed confusion as to why more active ice volcanoes are not found across the surface of Titan.

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Io surface

(Image credit: NASA / JPL)

Loki, Io

Before release Voyager mission In the 1970s, few expected to find active volcanic activity in the frozen parts of the solar system, where gas giants live. The only exception was the team led by the University of California planetary scientist Stan Peel.Peel Prophet paper Three months before the aircraft arrived on Jupiter, we predicted that the combined orbital force of the gas giant and other satellites would be able to squeeze the small Io enough to melt its interior.

But even Peel couldn’t imagine what he saw when Voyager passed by. Io With more than 400 active volcanoes, it is the most violent geological world in the solar system. Its dynamic surface is supported by unimaginable gravitational pulling and squeezing, creating a rocky tide bulge over 33 feet (10 meters) high and constantly moving around the moon.

Loki is the largest eruption volcano of Io. It is a 125-mile (200 km) wide volcanic lake that erupts at regular intervals (approximately every 540 Earth days). These eruptions emit 250 miles (400 km) of jets, with sulfur and sulfur dioxide widely distributed over vast areas of the earth’s surface.

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crater

(Image credit: NASA / Lunar Orbiter 2 / Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter)

Marius Hill, Moon

Marius Hills is the largest volcanic dome field on the Moon, with numerous domes up to 1,640 feet (500 m) high. There is also a hole in the Marius Hills in this area. The Marius Hills Hole is an opening hundreds of feet wide on the Moon, providing a 260-foot (80-meter) high window that scientists consider ancient. Lunar lava tube.. Some engineers even consider the natural shield of the hole to be the location of a future lunar base.

There was a debate about whether our heavenly companion was a volcanic world until the astronauts returned the moon rocks to Earth for analysis. Only after the moon rocks were analyzed did it confirm that a large dark mare patch did not affect the craters, but ancient lava is flowing.

The volcanic activity that created the Marius Hills is a long time ago, but there are places on the Moon where volcanic activity may have occurred in the last hundreds of millions of years. Science.. And if it can be proved, it is not unbelievable that the moon will erupt again in the near future.

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Space mountain

(Image credit: NASA)

Mount Olympus, Mars

The largest volcano in the solar system, MarsOlympus Mons It extends to an area equal to Arizona. It’s so big that if someone drops you on a mountaintop caldera crater, you won’t see the edge of the crater because it’s across the horizon. According to a 2020 study, its weight bends the lithosphere of Mars and bends beneath it like a bowling ball on a trampoline. Release It is published in the Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research.

Mount Olympus, a shield volcano, is formed by the generation of magma pulses on pillars called plumes. In Olympus Mons, this could extend all the way to the core mantle boundary thousands of miles below. If Mars had Earth-like plate tectonics, continuous pulses from such a plume would create a chain of islands like Hawaii as the plate moves over this overheated pillar. .. But Mars, like Venus and Mercury, does not have such a process. As a result, for billions of years, the eruptions of Mount Olympus have produced relatively gentle lava flows from a single location, each pouring over the last location, and now a vast, gently sloping terrain. Has been steadily added to.

The youngest lava flow on the northwestern flank of Olympus Mons is 2 million years old.These are geologically very recent and the mountains Still active, But in a very quiet and episodic way.

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Volcano

(Image credit: NASA / JPL)

Maat Mons, Venus

Martmons, the highest volcano on the surface of Venus, has confused scientists’ expectations.Surface pressure Venus It will prevent the formation of such steep slopes. However, recent models suggest that sufficiently viscous Venusian lava can explain the formation of Maat Mons and other cones. Surface pressure can even contribute to their formation and prevent the ejected material from diffusing too far from the vent.

Maat Mons and other Venusian volcanoes do leave their mark on the entire surface of the planet. This is on average only 750 million years old as a result of recent large lava flows. And that surface update process may continue to this day.

In the 1980s Pioneer Venus The project revealed significant fluctuations in the concentrations of sulfur dioxide and methane, which are common volcanic gases in Venus’ atmosphere. European Space Agency..One explanation is Recent volcanic gas injections According to a paper published in Nature Geoscience, it is due to a volcano like Maat Mons.

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Moon surface

(Image credit: NASA / JPL-Caltech / SETI Institute)

Europa Cryo Geyser

Volcanic activity in the outer solar system can take on strange shapes not even found in the coldest latitudes of the Earth. In 2012 Hubble Space Telescope Water vapor plume detected from the South Pole of Jupiter’s Moon Europa.. These were later linked to a circular dome on the surface that was thought to be erupting the cryogaiser. Hubble’s image suggests that the plume could be 124 miles (200 kilometers) high.

Europa has long fascinated scientists for predicting the underground ocean. Fly-by sampling of these volcanic plumes could help astronomers seek life in this ice cap sea without drilling frozen surfaces.However, recent studies have shown that windows to this underground sea can be less reliable, and plumes Derived from meltwater Proven to be correct within Europa’s crust.

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Moon surface

(Image credit: NASA / JPL / Institute of Space and Astronautical Science)

Enceladus, striped tiger

Few volcanic worlds have caused shock, excitement, and awe like Saturn’s small moon Enceladus. In March 2006, the Cassini spacecraft imaged a large jet of ice emanating from the moon’s “tiger stripes.” This is a series of huge cracks that dominate the Antarctic region. From the stripe “Old Faithful“Type geysers constantly erupt and send large amounts of water quality material into orbit around the lunar host gas giant. Saturn’s ring..

Cassini then flew through the eruption plume to identify the composition of water and ice, including traces of carbon dioxide, ammonia, methane, and other complex hydrocarbons. These pollutants lower the melting temperature of the icy Enceradus crust and support the formation of cold magma.

The presence of complex hydrocarbons in the ejected steam indicates the type of hydrothermal vent chemistry that supports the underground ocean and perhaps the rich ecosystems of the Earth’s ocean floor.

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Volcano and snow

(Image credit: Getty Images)

Mount Etna, Earth

One of the most famous and active classic conical volcanoes in Earth,Italian Mount Etna This is a testament to our planet’s seemingly unique plate tectonics system. This process is facilitated by internal radioactive elements that drive the constant extrusion and divergence of patchwork of marine and continental plates on the surface.

Mount Etna is located above one of these convergent plate boundaries, ejecting molten rock far below the subduction of the water-rich African Plate beneath the Eurasian Plate. When volatiles that form water and other gases are introduced underground, they produce more viscous magma, resulting in explosive volcanic activity that can only be seen on Earth.

Plate tectonics Is the basic mechanism of our planet and recycles minerals that are important for life between the surface and the underground. By filling in excess carbon, it also acts as a thermostat and curbs climate change. The reason why there is plate tectonics on Earth and not in other solar system worlds is one of the major problems in planetary science. Answering that may help us understand how common Earth-like conditions are among the stars.

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Mountain rock

(Image credit: NASA / JPL-Caltech / UCLA / MPS / DLR / IDA)

Ahuna Mons, Ceres

Volcanic activity is even found in the asteroid belts of our solar system.And CeresThe largest object found orbiting between Mars and Jupiter, it has a strange shape.

In 2015, on the surface of a relatively flat terrain with craters, NASA’s breaking Dawn The spacecraft imagined Ahuna Mons, a rectangular mountain with a flat top that is 10.5 miles (17 km) long. The origin of Ahuna Mons was fixed to the upwelling below the crust, as there were no signs of plate tectonics in Ceres. This is probably the closest example of a cryovolcano in the solar system.

However, the lava was not flooded with the almost pure water found on the surfaces of Jupiter and Saturn’s moons.Desorption and dome mineralogy suggest that these magmas contain many floating rocks, and Ahuna Mons Mud volcano.. Simulations predict that it is being supplied by a plume extending from the mantle to the dome above it, and the mantle of Ceres may still be agitated, pushing material up to Ahuna Mons for growth.

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Surface rock

(Image credit: NASA / JHUAPL / SwRI)

Lightmons, Pluto

Saturn and Jupiter’s moons have confused expectations that the outer solar system may provide slim picking for volcanic hunters, but NASA said. New horizon Arrived at Pluto in 2015. However, geology has also found a way in the frigid backwaters of the Kuiper belt.

The signs of the story came from the surprisingly smooth terrain. Scientists could only identify one collision crater in Lightmons itself. This indicates that the surface (and part of the crust beneath it) was created relatively recently.This may indicate that Light Mons It was a volcanic activity in the latter half of Pluto’s history. Criolava is composed of water, ammonia, and coloring components that are considered to be complex organic substances. The presence of ammonia seems to be the key to the mystery because it can act like antifreeze and melt frozen ice. In addition, the susceptibility to destruction caused by exposure to UV light supports the idea of ​​recent volcanic activity.

the same as Europa And Enceladus, Volcanic activity Pluto It provides an intriguing window to the sea of ​​ammonia-rich water beneath the ice crust.

Image: 10 incredible volcanoes in our solar system

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