Marie Curie was a physicist, chemist, and pioneer in the study of radiation. She discovered the elements of polonium and radium with her husband Pierre.They were awarded Nobel Prize in Physics In 1903, with Henri Beckler, Marie Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1911. She used radium extensively throughout her life, characterized its various properties and investigated its therapeutic potential. However, her work with radioactive material eventually killed her, and he died of a blood disorder in 1934.
Marie Curie was born on November 7, 1867 in Warsaw, Poland, to Maria (mania) Salomy Sklodowskite. The youngest of five children, she had three older sisters and one sibling. Her parents (father Wladislaw and mother Bronislava) were educators who ensured that girls as well as sons were educated.
Curie’s mother tuberculosis 1878. In Barbara Goldsmith’s book “Obsession: Marie Curie’s Inner World(WW Norton, 2005) She states that the death of Curie’s mother had a profound effect on Curie, fueled a lifelong struggle with depression, and shaped her view of religion. I have written.
In 1883, at the age of 15, Curie completed secondary education and was the first to graduate in class. Both Curie and her sister Bronya wanted to have a higher education, but the University of Warsaw did not accept women. They had to leave the country to get the education they wanted. At the age of 17, Curie became governor to help pay for her sister’s attendance at the School of Medicine in Paris. Curie continued to study on her own and eventually left for Paris in November 1891.
When Curie enrolled at the Sorbonne University in Paris, she signed her name “Marie” to make her look more like a Frenchman. Curie was a hard-working, focused student at the top of the class. Recognizing her talent, She was awarded the Alexandrovich Scholarship For Polish students studying abroad. This scholarship helped Curie pay for the classes required to obtain a physics and mathematical science license or degree in 1894.
Encounter with Pierre Curie
One of Curie’s professors arranged a research grant for her to study the magnetic properties and chemical composition of steel. The research project brought her into contact with Pierre Curie, who was also a seasoned researcher. The two married in the summer of 1895.
Pierre studied the field of crystallography and discovered the piezoelectric effect. The piezoelectric effect is the generation of electric charges by squeezing a specific crystal or applying mechanical stress. He also designed several instruments for measuring magnetic fields and electricity.
Discovery of radioactivity
Curie was intrigued by the report discovered by the German physicist Wilhelm Röntgen. X-ray And a report by French physicist Henri Becquerel of a similar “Becquerel ray” emitted by uranium salt.According to Goldsmith, Curie has one of the two metal plates. uranium salt. He then used a device designed by her husband to measure the intensity of the rays produced by uranium. The instrument detected a weak electric current generated when a uranium ray hits the air between two metal plates. She found that uranium compounds emit similar rays.In addition, the intensity of the rays remained the same regardless of the inclusion of compounds. Solid or liquid state..
Curie continued to test more uranium compounds. She experimented with a uranium-rich ore called pitch blende and found that even with the removal of uranium, pitch blende emits stronger rays than pure uranium. She suspected that this might suggest the existence of an undiscovered element.
In March 1898, Curie recorded her findings in an original dissertation, where she coined the term “radioactivity.” Curie made two revolutionary observations in this paper, Goldsmith said. Curie said measuring radioactivity would enable the discovery of new elements.And the radioactivity is Atomic properties..
Curie worked together to find out the load of the pitch blend. The couple devised a new protocol for separating pitch blends into their chemical constituents. Marie Curie worked late into the night, stirring a giant cauldron with an iron rod about the same height as her.
Curie discovered that two chemical components, one similar to bismuth and the other similar to barium, are radioactive. In July 1898, Curie announced his conclusions. Compounds such as bismuth contain previously undiscovered radioactive elements. poloniumAfter Marie Curie’s home country, Poland. By the end of the year, they had separated the second radioactive element. radium, Derived from the Latin word “radius” for rays. In 1902, Curie announced a successful extraction of purified radium.
In June 1903, Marie Curie was the first woman in France to defend her dissertation. In November of that year, Curie, along with Antoine Henribeclel, won the Nobel Prize in Physics for her contribution to the understanding of “radiation phenomena.”The nominating committee was initially Opposed to include women as Nobel laureatesHowever, Pierre Curie claimed that the original study belonged to his wife.
In 1906, Pierre Curie died in a tragic accident when he stepped into the street at the same time as the carriage. Marie Curie was then the first woman to play that role as a professor of general physics at the Faculty of Science at the University of Sorbonne.
In 1911, Marie was awarded the 2nd Nobel Prize in Chemistry for her discovery of the elements polonium and radium. To commemorate the 100th anniversary of her Nobel Prize, 2011 was “International Year of Chemistry.. “
As her research on radioactivity intensified, Curie’s lab became inadequate. According to Goldsmith, the Austrian government seized the opportunity to hire Curie and offered to create a state-of-the-art laboratory for her. Curie negotiated with the Pasteur Institute to build the Radioactivity Institute. By July 1914, the Radium Institute (“Institut du Radium” at the Pasteur Institute, now Curie Institute) Almost completed. When World War I broke out in 1914, Curie interrupted her research and organized a fleet of mobile X-ray devices for the doctor in front.
After the war, she worked hard to raise money for the Radium Institute. But by 1920, she was suffering from health problems. Probably due to exposure to radioactive material. Curie died of aplastic anemia on July 4, 1934 anemia — Conditions that occur in the following cases Bone marrow Unable to generate new blood cells. In his book, historian Craig Nelson concludes that Curie’s doctor was unable to respond to her “bone marrow, probably because it was injured by a long-term accumulation of radiation.”Age of Shine: A spectacular rise and a dramatic fall in the nuclear age(Scribner, 2014).
Curie was buried next to her husband in Thor, a commune in southern Paris. But in 1995, their bodies were moved to the Panthéon in Paris with the greatest French citizens and buried.Curie had the 96th element in 1944 Periodic table of elements Discovered, “curium.. “
Marie Curie: Facts and Biography
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