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Plasma ACE2 levels associated with increased risk of major cardiovascular events

Early in the epidemic of coronavirus disease (COVID-19), scientists discovered a cell gateway that the virus used to invade and invade cells. The angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor acts as a gateway to the virus’s cells by binding to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike protein.

A team of scientists from the Institute of Population and Health in Hamilton Health Sciences and McMaster University in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, could indicate that elevated blood plasma ACE2 levels are at increased risk of major cardiovascular events. I made it clear that I have sex.The study is published in the journal Lancet.

There is ongoing global effort to better understand ACE2, the receptor by which SARS-CoV-2 invades cells. ACE2 is a known regulator of cardiac function and can affect health if the system becomes dysregulated. It is essential to know more about the role of ACE2 and how it affects the heart health of patients infected with the coronavirus.

Small clinical studies suggest that elevated levels of circulating ACE2 activity and concentration may serve as markers of poor prognosis in people with multiple cardiovascular diseases. So far, no studies have provided evidence in a large cohort of the general population.

Human ACE2 receptor, 3D illustration. Angiotensin converting enzyme-related carboxypeptidase, a membrane protein used by the SARS-CoV-2 virus to invade human cells. Image Credit: Kateryna Kon / Shutterstock

the study

This study, called the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study, opens the door to exploring the link between ACE2 levels and death in future cardiovascular disease events and global community-based cohorts.

The team confirmed the role of demographic and clinical features as a possible determinant of plasma ACE2 levels, explained the association between plasma ACE2 levels with cardiovascular events and mortality, and as a risk marker. We aim to investigate the importance of ACE2 in plasma. ..

To reach the findings, the PURE survey was attended by participants from 27 low-income, middle-income, and high-income countries. The team has developed a biobanking initiative for participants to assess genomic and proteomics markers of chronic disease risk. In addition, they collect blood samples from each country, with 14 countries including Bangladesh, Brazil, Argentina, Canada, Colombia, Chile, India, Philippines, Pakistan, Iran, South Africa, Tanzania, Sweden and the United Arab Emirates. It has shipped. And Zimbabwe.

Researchers included cardiovascular events such as stroke, heart failure, diabetes, myocardial infarction, and death.

Protein measurement

After collecting blood samples from around the world, the team uses immunoassays based on proximity expansion assay techniques to measure protein and plasma concentrations. In addition, genotyping and genetic analysis were performed by the researchers.

They explain the largest fluctuations in plasma ACE2 levels by gender, followed by geographical ancestry, body mass index (BMI), diabetes, age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels. I found that it would continue.

This study adds to a previous study that noted that men are at increased risk of developing severe COVID-19. This study shows that men have higher plasma ACE2 levels than women, but concentrations vary widely by geographic ancestry.

In addition, higher BMI, older age, diabetes, higher blood pressure, higher LDL cholesterol levels, and smoking were all associated with elevated levels of circulating plasma ACE2.

ACE2 was the highest-ranked predictor of mortality when compared to clinical risk factors such as diabetes, smoking, blood pressure, body mass index, and lipid levels.

“ACE2 receptors promote SARS-CoV-2 viral invasion. In patients with COVID-19, ACE2 receptors may play a role in causing cardiovascular complications such as thrombosis, heart damage and heart failure. ACE2 may be a link between SARS-CoV-2 and the cardiac symptoms described in the findings revealed by global data during the COVID-19 pandemic. The researchers wrote in the paper.

Researchers noted that plasma levels of ACE2 show an independent association with cardiovascular disease, including death.

“Compared to established clinical risk factors, ACE2 has consistently emerged as a strong predictor of cardiovascular disease or mortality,” they added.

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