The human respiratory system is a network of organs responsible for the uptake of oxygen and the excretion of carbon dioxide.Its main organ is lung, Perform this gas exchange when we breathe.
Lungs Circulatory system It sends oxygen-rich blood to all cells in the body. The blood then collects carbon dioxide and other waste products and returns them to the lungs. In the lungs, waste products are excreted from the body during exhalation. American Lung Association..
The human body needs oxygen to maintain itself. After only about 5 minutes in the absence of oxygen, brain cells begin to die. National Center of Neurology and Neurology, Can lead to brain damage and ultimately death.
For humans, the average respiratory rate, or respiratory rate, is primarily age-dependent. The normal respiratory rate for newborns is about 40-60 breaths per minute and can be as slow as 30-40 breaths per minute when the baby is asleep. Stanford Children’s Health.. The average resting breathing rate for adults is 12 to 16 breaths per minute and up to 40 to 60 breaths per minute during exercise. European Respiratory Society..
Part of the respiratory system
There are many components to the respiratory system. They include:
- Throat (pharynx)
- Voice box (larynx)
- Trachea (trachea)
- Large airway (bronchi)
- Small airways (bronchioles)
When we breathe, oxygen comes in nose Or pass through the mouth and sinuses. The paranasal sinuses are the hollow spaces in the skull that help regulate the temperature and humidity of the breathing air.
From the sinuses, air passes through the trachea (also called the trachea) and enters the bronchi, the two tubes that carry air to each lung (each called the bronchus). The bronchi are lined with small hairs called cilia that move back and forth while carrying mucus up and down. Mucus is a sticky liquid that collects dust, bacteria, and other substances that have invaded the lungs and is excreted when you sneeze or cough.
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The bronchi divide again and carry air to the leaves of each lung. According to the right lung, there are three lobes and the left lung has only two. This is to accommodate space for the heart. American Lung Association.. The leaves are filled with small spongy sac called alveoli, where oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged.
The alveolar wall is very thin (about 0.2 micrometers) and is composed of a single layer of tissue called epithelial cells and small blood vessels called lung capillaries. The blood in the capillaries absorbs oxygen and excretes carbon dioxide. The oxygenated blood then flows into the pulmonary veins. Two of these four veins from each lung carry oxygen-rich blood to the left side of the heart, where it is pumped to all parts of the body. The carbon dioxide in the remaining blood moves to the alveoli and is excreted by exhalation.
The diaphragm is a dome-shaped muscle in the lower part of the lungs that controls breathing and separates the chest cavity from the abdominal cavity. When air is taken in, the diaphragm tightens and moves down, creating more space for the lungs to fill and expand. National Institute of Cardiopulmonary Blood.. During exhalation, the diaphragm dilates and compresses the lungs, forcing air out.
Respiratory illnesses and conditions fall into two categories: infections, etc. influenza, Bacterial pneumonia and enterovirus respiratory virus, and asthma Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)..
According to Dr. Neil Chison, a pulmonologist at the Cleveland Clinic, you can’t do much against viral infections, but you can get them to do the course. “Antibiotics are not effective in treating the virus, and the best way is to just rest,” he said.
Dr. Matthew Xlein, a pulmonologist and critical care specialist at The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, said that for most healthy people, the most common respiratory disease they may face is an infection. I am. Cough is the first symptom, probably accompanied by fever.
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“But coughing can be a sign of chronic respiratory illnesses such as asthma, chronic bronchitis, and emphysema,” he said. “In chronic lung disease, most respiratory illnesses are accompanied by shortness of breath, initially with exertion such as walking a considerable distance and climbing stairs several times.”
asthma According to Tonya Winders, president of Allergy & Asthma Network, this is a chronic inflammation of the pulmonary airways that causes coughing, wheezing, chest tightness, or shortness of breath. These signs and symptoms can be exacerbated when a person is exposed to a trigger. Air pollution, Tobacco smoke, factory smoke, cleaning solvents, infectious diseases, pollen, food, cold air, exercise, chemicals, medicines. Exercise can also induce asthma. More than 25 million people (or 1 in 13 adults and 1 in 12 children) have asthma in the United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)..
Asthma is a mild stimulus for some people, but it can be life-threatening for others. Mayo Clinic.. Asthma cannot be cured, but its symptoms can be managed. Early identification and treatment can prevent long-term injury and prevent asthma from getting worse over time.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
COPD is a chronic, progressive disease that reduces the flow of air into and out of the lungs, making it difficult to breathe. COPD is a combination of chronic bronchitis (inflammation of the bronchi) and emphysema (damage to the alveoli). Mayo Clinic.. Smoking is a major cause of COPD.
Over time, the airways of people with COPD become inflamed, thickened, and difficult to get rid of waste carbon dioxide, American Lung Association.. As the disease progresses, the patient experiences shortness of breath, which can limit activity.More than 16 million Americans are affected by COPD, according to CDC.. There is no cure for COPD, but it is possible.
lung cancer Often associated with smoking, the disease can also affect nonsmokers. It is the second most common cancer in both men and women, and ranks higher than prostate and breast cancer, respectively.
The· American Cancer Society (ACS) will have approximately 235,760 new cases of lung cancer in the United States in 2021 (119,100 men and 116,660 women) and approximately 131,880 deaths from lung cancer (69,410 men and 62,470 women). I presume. However, in recent years, due to advances in treatment and early detection, the number of deaths from lung cancer has been declining, most people diagnosed with lung cancer are over 65 years old, and the average age of people diagnosed with lung cancer is 70 years old. is. According to ACS.
There are two different types of lung cancer. Cancer that begins in the lungs, as opposed to cancer that spreads in the lungs. Small cell lung cancer and non-small cell lung cancer. Mayo Clinic.. Small cell lung cancer is most commonly found in heavy smokers and is less common than non-small cell lung cancer.
The main symptoms of lung cancer are shortness of breath, pain, hemoptysis, and water in the lungs. Doctors diagnose lung cancer by performing imaging tests such as CT scans. Cough sputum test; and lung biopsy.
Treatment is based on the degree of lung cancer and whether it has spread to other parts of the body. Treatments range from surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy to palliative care.
This article was updated on July 16, 2021 by Live Science contributor Sarah Wild.
Respiratory system: facts, functions and illnesses
Source link Respiratory system: facts, functions and illnesses