Scientists broke the record for the lowest temperatures ever measured in the laboratory. By dropping the magnetized gas 393 feet (120 meters) below the tower, they achieved a bone cooling temperature of 1/38 trillion, above -273.15 degrees Celsius.
A team of German researchers was investigating the quantum properties of the so-called fifth state of matter. Bose-Einstein Condensation (BEC), a derivative of a gas that exists only under ultra-low temperature conditions. At the BEC stage, matter itself begins to behave like one large atom, making it a particularly attractive subject for quantum physicists interested in the mechanics of subatomic particles.
Related: 10 scientific records broken in 2020
Temperature is a measure of molecular vibration — the more a set of molecules moves, the higher the temperature of the set. Therefore, absolute zero is the point at which all molecular motion stops — minus 459.67 degrees Fahrenheit, or minus 273.15 degrees Celsius. Scientists have developed a special scale for cryogenics called the Kelvin scale. Here, zero Kelvin corresponds to absolute zero. ..
As we approach absolute zero, some strange things begin to happen.For example, according to a study published in a journal in 2017, light literally becomes a liquid that can be poured into a container. Nature Physics..Supercooling helium Stop experiencing friction at very low temperatures, according to a study published in the journal in 2017 Nature Communications..And in NASA Cold Tom Lab, Researchers have witnessed atoms in two places at once.
In this record-breaking experiment, scientists trapped about 100,000 gaseous clouds. rubidium Atoms in a magnetic field in a vacuum chamber. They then cooled the chamber to about 1/2 billion degrees Celsius below absolute zero. This is a world record in itself. NewAtlas..
But this wasn’t cold enough for researchers who wanted to push the boundaries of physics. To get even colder, we had to mimic the state of deep space. So the team brought the setup to the Bremen Drop Tower of the European Space Agency, a microgravity research center at the University of Bremen, Germany. By free-falling the vacuum chamber while quickly switching the magnetic field on and off and suspending the BEC without being hindered by gravity, the molecular motion of the rubidium atom has been reduced to almost zero. The resulting BEC remained at 38 pico Kelvin (1/38 trillion of Kelvin) for about 2 seconds, setting an “absolute negative record”, the team reported on August 30 in the journal. Physical review letter.. A previous record of one-36 millionth of Kelvin was achieved with a special laser by scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in Boulder, Colorado.
The coldest known natural place in the universe Boomerang NebulaIt is located in Centaurus, about 5,000 light-years from Earth. According to it, its average temperature is -272 ° C (about 1 Kelvin). European Space Agency. ]
Researchers in the new research state in a statement that, in theory, this temperature can be maintained for as long as 17 seconds under truly weightless conditions such as in space.Ultra-low temperatures may one day help scientists build better quantum computers, according to researchers at MIT..
Originally published in Live Science.
Scientists broke the lowest temperature record ever recorded in the lab
Source link Scientists broke the lowest temperature record ever recorded in the lab