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The Roman Empire: Rulers, expansion and fall

The Roman Empire began in 27 B.C., when Octavian, Julius Caesar’s adopted son and heir, was granted the title “Augustus,” meaning “revered one,” by the Roman senate. This new title signified Octavian’s elevation to the position of emperor in all but name, ending the Roman Republic, according to many modern historians.

Octavian was granted this title after emerging victorious from a series of civil wars triggered by the assassination of Julius Caesar in 44 B.C. During these wars Mark Antony, Caesar’s former general, fought for control of the Roman world against some of Caesar’s assassins, and later he allied with Cleopatra to fight against Octavian 



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