Melioidosis is a bacterial infection caused by Burkholderia pseudomalleiBacteria that inhabit the soil and water of the tropical and subtropical regions of the world.Infections can cause and even cause a variety of symptoms, from skin ulcers to abscesses of multiple organs. pneumonia.. However, it can be asymptomatic and the infected person may not be aware that he or she is infected.
According to a 2016 study by the journal, about 165,000 melioidosis occur each year. Nature microbiology.. Most often it occurs in Southeast Asia and northern Australia.Studies published in the journal Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo In 2006, melioidosis was suggested to be an emerging infectious disease in Brazil and neighboring South American countries.
However, the disease is rare in the United States. In fact, between March and July 2021, four cases of melioidosis were identified in four different states, killing two and drawing public attention very rarely. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).. The origin and method of infection remains a mystery at the time of writing, as investigations are ongoing.
But most people in the United States don’t have to worry unless they’ve recently traveled or plan to travel to areas where the disease is common, says Daniel, adjunct professor of infectious diseases at Georgetown University in Washington.・ Dr. Lucy said. DC “For now, don’t worry too much,” he said.
What Causes Melioidosis?
Also known as Whitmore diseaseMelioidosis is caused by direct contact with, after one of the two scientists who first described the infection after recognizing a new case of septic disease in Burma in 1912. B. Burkholderia pseudomale Bacteria.. Inhalation can also lead to infections. These bacteria are commonly found in polluted soil or water in tropical or subtropical regions of the world.
according to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Here’s how someone can get infected from contaminated soil or water:
- Inhale contaminated water droplets and dust
- Ingestion of contaminated water droplets
- Eat food grown in polluted soil
- Contact with open cuts or abrasions on the skin
Transmission can also occur between humans as a result of contact with blood or body fluids, but this is rare. People who live or spend time in areas where bacteria are common are at increased risk, but there are other risk factors as well.
“The biggest medical risk factor is diabetes,” Lucy told Live Science.
1999 review of a case study of melioidosis published in the journal Clinical infections, found Diabetes mellitus Being one of the greatest risk factors for developing severe melioidosis. In general, people with diabetes are more susceptible to severe bacterial infections, especially those caused by Gram-negative bacteria, such as species that cause melioidosis, compared to people without diabetes.
People with liver, kidney, or lung disease, like people with cancer or cancer, are at increased risk of developing melioidosis when exposed to bacteria. Immunodeficiency..
Many different species of animals, especially sheep, goats and pigs, are also susceptible to infection and can spread bacteria through excrement. According to the Government of Western Australia, animals are as prone to illness as people when exposed to polluted water and soil. Primary Industry and Regional Development Bureau..
Symptoms of melioidosis
According to the CDC, it usually takes 2-4 weeks for symptoms of melioidosis to appear. However, symptoms may take years or days.
Melioidosis can manifest in many ways, and symptoms depend on where the infection is.It can be a localized infection that begins with an ulcer or cutaneous abscess in one place, an organ, joint, bone, or brain..
According to, the most common symptom of the disease is lung infection CDC.. Infected people can develop mild bronchitis, but they can also develop severe pneumonia. Symptoms of lung infection include cough, high fever, chest pain, headache, anorexia..
You can also get a bloodstream infection, which is often Septic shock.. According to the CDC, people with underlying health conditions, such as diabetes, are at increased risk of developing this type of infection and are more likely to develop it rapidly. Symptoms of bloodstream infections include joint pain, headache, fever, abdominal pain, dyspnea, disorientation or confusion.
Diagnosis and treatment of melioidosis
Doctors may usually recommend that individuals travel to areas where the bacteria are common and then test for symptoms. Lab tests are performed on blood, urine, sputum, or fluid from abscesses or skin lesions, B. Burkholderia pseudomale Bacteria.Melioidosis can also be diagnosed by detecting an elevation antibody For bacteria in blood samples.
NS vaccination It is not available for melioidosis and tends to focus on prevention. Experts recommend that high-risk people avoid contact with soil and standing water in areas where bacteria are common.
To treat the infection, experts usually recommend intravenous antibiotics for 2 weeks in people with confirmed cases of melioidosis. Intravenous treatment is the most effective way to get antibiotics to the bacterial site, Lucy said. At the end of the two weeks, the patient will be evaluated to determine if additional treatment is needed, such as intravenous antibiotics for an additional 4-6 weeks. After that, CDC Oral antibacterial therapy for 3 to 6 months is recommended.
Many people recover completely after treatment, but they can recur and require additional treatment. Recurrence is more likely to occur in people with severe cases, who tend to occur in people who have defined risk factors such as diabetes.
This article is for informational purposes only and is not intended to provide medical advice.
What is Melioidosis? | Live science
Source link What is Melioidosis? | Live science