In 2015, representatives from 196 countries and territories gathered at the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), as has been held annually since 1995. During the convention held in Paris that year, countries and regions (or “parties”) agreed on an international plan to address climate change, known as the Paris Agreement.
According to the parties, they agreed on three objectives UNFCCC: Limit global average temperature rise well below pre-industrial levels below 2 degrees Celsius (3.6 degrees Fahrenheit), preferably below 1.5 degrees Celsius (2.7 F).Build resilience Climate change Impact; And allocate money for these purposes. Each party has created its own Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) to these goals. From 2023, both parties will meet every five years. Take stock Of their progress and plans to ratchet their NDC.
The agreement follows several previous attempts at combating global climate change.For example, 1997 Kyoto Protocol Thirty-seven industrialized nations have called for emissions to be reduced by an average of 5% below 1990 levels. Unlike previous efforts, the Paris Agreement does not require different levels of action based on development levels and does not require all countries to reduce emissions by a certain standard. Hmm.
“The unprecedented thing about the Paris Agreement is that we all get together and say,’Even if we have different responsibilities for climate issues, we all have a common responsibility to deal with them.’ That’s what Maria Ivanova of International Relations and Environment said, a policy scholar at the University of Massachusetts Boston.
Which country did you sign on?
All 197 party The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change agrees that it will somehow be part of the Paris Agreement. Political parties usually sign an agreement, after which national governing bodies such as parliament vote to ratify it and make a formal agreement to participate. To date, 189 countries have completed this process. 6 has signed but has not ratified. And the two ratified without first signing.
The United States joined the Paris Agreement after the 2015 Games. However, the United States withdrew from the agreement in 2019 at the behest of then-President Donald Trump. Live science previously reported..On the first day Joe Biden became president in 2021, he Recommit US To an agreement.
What are the strengths of the agreement?
The Paris Agreement addresses urgent issues. It has brought about mutual efforts by all UN-recognized countries to tackle climate change. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).
Past agreements have suggested that this should work. The Paris Agreement is not the first time that countries around the world have tried to solve a common problem by setting their own commitments. In fact, thousands of similar agreements are currently in place to address issues such as wetland degradation and pollution.
According to Ivanova, who is studying the impact of these agreements, these types of agreements work because they benefit the country in the long run. For example, if a country achieves a wetland compensation target Ramsar Convention on Wetlands, It is rewarded with improved quality of life, water availability, power supply and flood protection. Therefore, countries are aware of these benefits and are working harder to reach their goals.
The agreement is also flexible — it does not force impact on countries that are below their goals, which may be the reason why it has gained widespread support and high goals from some countries.But the agreement is Robust reporting processSo the world can know if the country succeeded or failed — the system that architects want will foster a culture of ambition that the country will raise its goals as green technology improves and becomes cheaper. .. Politics reported..
What are the disadvantages of the contract?
The Paris Agreement does not seek impact and is not accountable.According to a 2017 critical review of the agreement published in the journal, many policy experts and climate activists have said that the Paris Agreement will help the country reach its goals and thereby mitigate the worst effects of climate change. Claims to lack the necessary teeth Climate policy..
The Paris Agreement is also not enough to save the world from anthropogenic climate change. Even if all nations carry out their commitments, the results will not be sufficient to prevent global warming associated with heavy rains, droughts and ecosystem disruptions. IPCC..United Nations announced in February 2021 report Explain the strength of the NDC of 75 Parties in achieving the goals of the Paris Agreement. According to the report, each country’s commitment is seriously inadequate. Limiting global warming to 1.5 ° C would require a 45% reduction in global emissions by 2030, but reports show that 75 parties will reduce emissions by less than 1% by 2030. I promised to do it.
Another drawback is that countries change priorities during this essentially long-term agreement. Since the Paris Agreement was signed in 2016, the United States has already signed, withdrawn and recommitted the Paris Agreement. According to Ivanova, it can be difficult to convince countries to participate in long-term projects and make bolder promises.
Is it working?
The Paris Agreement is still in its infancy. This is a long-term strategy to combat climate change, and countries have just submitted their commitments in 2020. So I’m still not sure if it’s working. Some countries have already made significant progress towards mitigating climate change, while others have been delayed.
For example, China’s commitments and policies give China a “very inadequate” reputation. Climate action tracker, A consortium of scientific organizations that decides whether a country has a fair share to deal with the climate crisis. China has promised to stop increasing greenhouse gas emissions by 2030 and is investing in green infrastructure. Still, China is highly dependent on fossil fuels and the coal industry is strong. If the NDCs of all other countries are comparable to those of China, the Earth is well on its way to warming 3-4 C (5.4-7.2 F) by the end of the 21st century.
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In contrast, Morocco is punching beyond its weight. It is one of the few developing countries on track to reduce emissions by 2030. Climate action trackerIf the NDCs of all countries are comparable to the NDCs of Morocco, global warming in this century could be kept below 1.5 ° C.
according to December 2020 Report According to the Climate Behavior Tracker, the Paris Agreement seems to stimulate climate behavior. By the end of the century, the amount of warming expected has fallen by 0.7 C (1.3 F) in the five years since the Paris Agreement began.And recently, many countries are raising the emissions targets, Xi Jinping Jintao of China hopeful Make the country carbon-neutral by 2060.President Joe Biden hopeful Make the United States carbon-neutral by 2050.And the European Union Climate proposal This includes stopping sales of new petrol vehicles by 2035.
It is not yet known if these countries will fulfill their promises. “It’s important to be ambitious and committed to doing something that addresses the problem,” Ivanova said. “But if you don’t do anything about that ambition, it doesn’t matter.”
What is the Paris Agreement?
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