Terrorism, also known as terrorism, was a period of state-approved violence and the mass death penalty during the French Revolution. Between September 5, 1793 and July 27, 1794, the French Revolutionary Government ordered the arrest and execution of thousands. French lawyer and politician Maximilien Robespierre led the terrorist politics. This was partly caused by a conflict between the two major French political parties, the Jacobins and the Girondins.
What is the cause of terrorism?
At the end of the French Revolution, a revolutionary government called the National Convention came to power and formed the first French Republic. The treaty convicted Louis XVI of treason in 1792 and led him in the guillotine in January 1793. Many parts of France, including Normandy and the city of Lyon, opposed the revolution and rebelled against the new government.
In March 1793, an armed rebellion in Vandé created the first few towns and eventually captured the entire region by counter-revolutionary forces. After a bloody campaign, Republican forces defeated the rebellion, killing about 200,000 people. New Republic report.
On March 18, 1793, French troops lost the battle of Neerwinden against the superior Austrian troops and further opposed the rule of the treaty. “The new administration had to devise a new form of execution to replace the monarchy,” said Peter McPhee, an emeritus professor at the University of Melbourne, Australia. All about history magazine.
“A serious military and political situation felt like an urgent need for executives,” Makfi said. “In April 1793, the National Convention established a 12-member Public Safety Commission with the aim of taking the emergency measures necessary to save the revolution.” According to McPhee, the Commission was an opponent of the revolution. He was arrested and subsequently tried by the Revolutionary Court.
According to Anne Sada’s book, on September 5, 1793, the Public Safety Commission declared France “revolutionary to peace.”Formation of liberal politics in revolutionary France“(Princeton University Press, 2014). This meant that the state of emergency came into force and the Commission was ready to take advantage of violence against its own people to bring stability to France. What became known as terror politics or governance was triggered. Terror politics.
When was terrorism?
September 17, 1793, the treaty Counter-revolution suspects law To identify and punish alleged revolutionary enemies. According to Ian Davidson’s book, the law also created a revolutionary court that attempted state-accused enemies and executed them if convicted.French Revolution“(Pegasus Books, 2016).
The Law of Suspects of Anti-Revolution also approved the arrest of those who “showed tyranny partisans by their writings.” Equality and fraternity of freedom: the quest for the French Revolution, A website operated by George Mason University and City University of New York. This prevented criticism and opposition to the treaty.
June 10, 1794, Prairial 22-day method It was handed over. According to Mike Laporte, those accused of being “enemy of the revolution” were not allowed lawyers to defend themselves during the trial, were not cross-examined or presented with evidence, and the only possible verdict was. He said he was innocent or dead. Book chapter “History of Terrorist Routledge“(Routledge, 2019).
“Since June 10, 1,376 people have been sentenced to death and decapitated an average of 30 times a day in the six weeks remembered as the Great Purge,” Rapport wrote. This continued until the dissolution of the Revolutionary Court in 1795.
Who led the terrorist politics?
When terrorism began, the most influential group in the treaty was called the Jacobins. According to Makfi, the most prominent members of the group were Robespierre (1758-1794), Camille Desmoulin (1760-1794) and Georges Danton (1759-1794).
“Like many of his peers, Robespierre saw an opportunity to correct the apparent injustice of absolutism and aristocratic privileges in the political turmoil of 1788-89,” McPhee said. “Only in July 1793, at the time of the greatest crisis of the revolution, he entered the government as an elected member of the Public Safety Commission and was widely seen as its main spokesman.” Although he did not play the role of, Robes Pierre was the most influential and vocal of its members.
Victim of terrorism
According to the book of historian Sylvia Neely, most of the people arrested and executed during the early terrorism were aristocratic members, priests, middle-class members, and those accused of counter-revolutionary activities. ..A brief history of the French Revolution“(Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, 2007).
One of the most famous victims of terrorism Marie Antoinette, The exiled queen of France. She was tried by the Revolutionary Tribunal on October 14, 1793 and executed two days later.
Some members of the revolutionary government were also killed during terrorism, including the Girondins, the largest faction in the treaty at the time. This group was more moderate than the Jacobins and sympathized with the monarchy. Some of its members opposed the execution of Louis XVI.
In June 1793, a popular uprising of workers in Paris left the Girondins out of work and the Jacobins gained majority power. On October 24, 1793, the most prominent Girondin members were tried and executed a week later by the guillotine at Place de la Concorde in Paris.
According to the book of historian Simon Schama, the executioner took 36 minutes to decapitate 22 Girondin members, including the corpse of a person who had already committed suicide in the trial.Citizen: Record of the French Revolution“(Vintage, 1990). Many other Girondins were later tracked down and either died or executed in suicide.
Related: What is a coup d’etat?
According to Davidson, estimates of the number of arrests during this period range from 300,000 to 500,000, but no one knows the exact number. “It was certainly tens of thousands, and maybe hundreds of thousands,” he wrote.
The number of people executed during the terrorist attacks is also uncertain. The official court record of those sentenced to death is 16,594, but according to historian Hugh Gough’s book, an additional 18,000 to 23,000 may have been killed without trial or died in prison. ..Fear in the French Revolution“(Red Globe Press, 2010).
Opposition to terrorism
One of the most prominent opponents of terrorism was Georges Danton, an influential member of the Jacobin and Robespierre political rivals. By the fall of 1793, Danton claimed that the instability that threatened the revolution that justified terrorism was over.
In a treaty speech on November 20, 1793, Danton called for the end of the killing. According to David Rhoday’s book, “We demand that men spare no blood! Let’s make the treaty only for those who have not been proven to be enemies of the people,” he says. rice field.French Revolutionary Giants: Danton, Life“(Grove Press, 2010). Danton also co-edited a newspaper criticizing terrorism, conventions and Robespierre.
In March 1794, Danton and his allies were arrested on various charges, including trying to save Louis XVI, making dangerous transactions with the Girondins, and making secret friendships with foreigners. rice field.
Witnesses were not allowed to submit evidence in court, and Danton was sentenced to death on April 5, 1794. According to Neely, when he was led by the guillotine, he turned to the executioner and said, “Show me my head to the people. It’s worth a look.” ..
How did terrorism end?
According to Makfi, on July 26, 1794, Robespierre delivered a long speech accusing several members of the treaty and alleging that there was a plot against the government. “Almost two hours of rambling, emotional speech was ambiguous to the point of inconsistency, as almost everyone was suspected of plotting by then,” McPhee said. I am writing in the book.Robespierre: Revolutionary Life“(Yale University Press, 2012).
When Robespierre did not name the conspirator, the treaty opposed him and shouted him booing to prevent him from speaking. “He was silent with a shout of’Down with him! Down with him!’,” Makfi wrote. “Robespierre tried to speak repeatedly in the general dissonance. Finally, he shouted:” I seek death. ”
The convention resolved to arrest Robespierre and declared him and his allies outlaws. Around 2:30 am the next morning, soldiers arrived to arrest the group, and Robespierre was shot in the jaw during the struggle. Robespierre and his followers were executed on July 28, 1794.
“Most history has linked the overthrow of Robespierre and his associates to the end of terrorism on July 27, 1794, but it is more accurate to look at the duration of’terrorism’,” McPhee said. But this time, it was aimed at the Jacobins and continued until the Revolutionary Court was abolished on May 31, 1795. According to Makfi, there may have been up to 6,000 extrajudicial revenge murders nationwide during this period.
-“”French Revolution: A very short introduction, ”William Doyle (Oxford University Press, 2001)
-“”The arrival of terrorism in the French Revolution, ”By Timothy Tackett (Harvard University Press, 2015)
-“”Citizen: Record of the French Revolution, “Simon Schama (Vintage, 1990)
What was terrorism?
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