Whether you are a frog or a human, reproduction is an opportunity for a cell celebration.Fertilized eggs give off a metal fireworks show in species separated by millions of years of evolution, according to new research atom..
This microscopic spark shower 2014 human egg, A leading researcher wondering what purpose the sudden release of metal served. Now, the same researcher who discovered the original fertilized fireworks found that the same thing happens with fertilization of frogs. Frogs are creatures that have been separated from humans by the evolution of 300 million years.Both manganese Zinc atoms explode from the egg membrane shortly after sperm contact.
“It emphasizes that zinc Thomas O’Halloran, a chemist and research leader at Northwestern University in Illinois, said variability is an ancient conserved part of the regulatory mechanism that controls development. Although he and his colleagues are still examining the details, manganese and zinc may prepare the eggs for future development and protect them from fertilization by multiple sperms.
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O’Halloran and his team began to “bulge” with zinc in 2014 when a human egg entered the final stages of development in preparation for fertilization, 50% more of the metal from the surroundings than in the early stages of development. I learned to pull in. .. Since then, I’ve learned that an egg can’t fertilize unless it can take up all of this zinc. It’s not clear what zinc is doing in this pre-fertilization stage, but researchers suggest that zinc stimulates other proteins in the egg and the egg is ready to become pluripotent. It has some initial data to do-that is, the egg can divide into all cell types of the body of a new organism.
At this stage, O’Halloran told Live Science. Zinc appears to play a role in communication, allowing some of the cells to signal each other. But at the moment of fertilization, zinc seems to be doing something else. First, zinc collects in small compartments called vesicles of the cell membrane, then released in what researchers call “zinc sparks,” causing billions of metal atoms to explode outward. straight away.
Since discovering this zinc spark in human eggs, researchers have discovered it in monkeys, cows, and mice. Looking at ancient pedigrees rather than mammals, similar sparks can be seen in Xenopus laevis (Xenopus laevis).Xenopus La Ebis).They reported their findings in the journal on June 21st. Nature Chemistry.
Frog eggs are much larger than mammalian eggs, so it’s good to study, O’Halloran said. This means that they are made up of more atoms, which makes it easier to see the metal atoms using a microscope.
“The frog really gave us special information that we couldn’t get from other systems,” O’Halloran said.
Nutrients for childbirth
Surprisingly, frog eggs do more than just release zinc when fertilized. It also releases manganese. O’Halolan and his team are uncertain whether this manganese release is specific to frogs or can occur in mammals. Given that mammalian eggs are much smaller than amphibian eggs, their threshold for detecting metals in mammalian egg studies was certainly not high enough to say. Manganese is a particular habit of amphibian eggs that can be fertilized and generated outside the mother’s body. Alternatively, manganese sparks may have occurred in humans as well, and more detailed research is needed to observe them.
In any case, the eruption of manganese and zinc from the egg during fertilization may be a way to prevent what O’Haloran called the “catastrophe of fertilization.” Multi-sperm means fertilization of an egg by multiple sperms. This causes the problem of having too many genomes and kills the developing zygotes.
In a new study, researchers show that zinc and manganese levels interfere with sperm egg fertilization, and that the fireworks show is actually a protective mechanism that may prevent additional sperm from breaking the egg. I became suspicious.
Zinc and manganese are interesting nutrients, Ohalolan said. Because the body cannot synthesize or break down these metals. You need to get them from your diet, store the right amount, and excrete the extras you aren’t using.
“They are more complex nutrients than most vitamins, proteins and fats,” he said.
Zinc is found throughout the body and was once thought to help intracellular enzymes complete chemical reactions. Recently, O’Halolan said it became clear that zinc could be used as a cell messenger. On the other hand, manganese has not yet been shown to have much of the role of messenger, but research is limited, O’Halloran said.
The main purpose of the study is to elucidate the complex ways in which an egg cell works. After all, according to O’Halloran, these cells begin to develop when the woman is still a foetation and must remain stationary for years before suddenly developing very rapidly in preparation for fertilization. Must be. Ultimately, the role of zinc and other metals in this process can question infertility researchers, such as whether zinc deficiency is involved in infertility.
“I think it shows the fact that cells must have a very complex sequence of elements available during reproduction,” O’Halloran said.
Originally published in Live Science.
When the egg is fertilized, the hidden compartment starts “fireworks”
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