Why do Americans die faster than Europeans? | Samuel Preston and Yana Beer Boom

A A 30-year-old American can die three times as old as a European. In fact, Americans get worse at almost every age. To make matters worse, America’s disadvantages are increasing over time.

For example, in 2017The high mortality rate in the United States results in over-death of about 401,000 people. This is a death that did not occur if the US age-specific mortality rate was low. Before the pandemic, that 401,000 accounted for about 12% of all American deaths. That percentage is even higher under the age of 85, with one in four Americans dying just because they don’t live in Europe.

The tremendous losses caused by the Covid-19 pandemic are widely publicized. The US government estimates that 377,000 deaths in 2020 will be due to Covid-19.This means a mortality penalty paid by the United States Every year It is equivalent to the number of deaths from the American pandemic in 2020. Also, people tend to die in Covid at a much older age than the typical American over-death, so the total number of years of life that can be lost in an average year is three times that of those lost. .. To Covid in 2020 (13.0 million vs. 4.4 million).

Much effort has been made to explain the disadvantages of US mortality. There is no single answer, but three factors stand out.First, the mortality rate due to drug overdose Much higher It soared in the 21st century in the United States rather than Europe. Second, the proportion of obese American adults is skyrocketing. In 2016, 40% of American adults were obese, higher than in Europe.Higher levels of obesity in the United States May be an account For 55% of life expectancy shortages compared to other rich countries. Third, the United States stands out among the wealthiest countries by not providing universal health insurance. One analysis suggest Due to the lack of universal health insurance, there were 45,000 excess deaths in 2005 between the ages of 18 and 64. That number represents about a quarter of the excess mortality in that age range.

Why is the United States so poorly performing in these areas? We argue that the lack of federal surveillance and regulation, strong lobbying, hollowing out of US employment, and systematic racism combine to create a tsunami of over-death each year. I will.

Both Supply and demand factors are related Increasing US deaths due to drug overdose. Large pharmaceutical companies sold painkillers in the 1990s without proper federal oversight of safety claims, promoting overdose of prescription opioids. Lobbying by a major pharmaceutical company protected the sales campaign. Eventually, restrictions were set, but damage was occurring. Illegal use of opiates has increased dramatically, especially among people in economically depressed areas and those with low levels of school education.

Economists Anne Case and Angus Deaton argued that American society was suffering, noting that this increase was consistent with increased mortality from suicide and alcohol-related deaths. Rising despair.. They claim that one of the main drivers was the hollowing out of industry, eliminating millions of high-paying jobs for those who did not attend college. This is the group that showed the largest increase in early mortality during the 21st century.

For people over the age of 65, medical insurance coverage is almost universal throughout Medicare.Ann International review The results of medical practice by the National Academy of Sciences suggest that the United States is relatively good at identifying and treating cardiovascular disease and many cancers. However, the prevalence of these diseases, which are the major murderers in wealthy countries, is unusually high in the United States. Heart disease, a type of cardiovascular disease and the leading cause of death in the United States for decades, is strongly associated with lifestyle factors such as obesity. The relationship between obesity and health risk is well known, but consumers have a strong preference for unhealthy foods. Not only because humans are biologically vulnerable to sweets and fats Major food producers and distributors are encouraged To turn this weakness into a profit.

The systematic racism that exists in American society creates inequality in resources and power, which in turn has a significant “downstream” impact on the health of people of color. Healthcare inequality and provider prejudice have important implications for infant and maternal mortality. For example, many doctors (usually whites and men) It is shown We take less serious health concerns of black and Latino people during pregnancy and childbirth, resulting in poor health for both mothers and their children.Black toddler Significantly good results When treated by a black doctor.

The United States also has very high income inequality in addition to yawning racial inequality. And US social policy is less likely to correct inequality than elsewhere. One study We conclude that if the United States has the generosity of social policy as other OECD countries, life expectancy in the United States will be three to four years longer. Factors behind US social policy shortcomings, including the provision of health insurance, are: Sense on the side of the majority of whites More generous policies will benefit African Americans disproportionately.

All of this suggests that our shortcomings are not simply the product of what is happening in the area called “medical and public health.” Rather, these shortcomings are deeply embedded in the lasting characteristics of American society. The inability of the United States to properly protect its members from premature death casts doubt on the US civil process and undermines US efforts to act as a model for other nations.

  • Yana Vierboom is a postdoctoral fellow at the Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research in Germany.Her work focuses on health inequality throughout the life course

  • Samuel Preston is a professor of sociology at the University of Pennsylvania.His research focuses on the determinants of population health

Why do Americans die faster than Europeans? | Samuel Preston and Yana Beer Boom

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